Rudolf Hermann Lotze (born May 21, 1817 in Budissin ; † July 1, 1881 in Berlin ) was a German physician and philosopher. He was one of the central figures of academic philosophy in the 19th century and was one of the best-known and most discussed philosophers in Germany until the 1920s. Compared to the protagonists of German idealism or the philosophers of the 19th century, who worked outside the academic tradition, he is less well known today.
Lotze was born as the third child of a military doctor in Bautzen . He attended the high school in Zittau . In Zittau he later worked as a general practitioner for a year. He studied at the University of Leipzig philosophy and was there to Dr. phil. PhD. He completed his habilitation in medicine in 1839 and philosophy in 1840. In 1843 he was appointed associate professor for philosophy. In 1844 he was appointed to the Göttingen chair as the successor to Johann Friedrich Herbart . His most important works fall during this period. Parts of his older work, especially his system of philosophy, are connected to Berlin , where he was called in 1880, but where he also died a short time later (1881). Josiah Royce and Hermann Langenbeck are among his students .
Work, criticism and meaning
During his time and until before the First World War , Lotze was considered the most important German metaphysician after Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and a pioneering natural scientist. As a philosopher, Lotze received suggestions from Johann Friedrich Herbart and Christian Hermann Weisse , but felt (as he himself said) most attracted to Leibniz . As a physiologist, he rejected (uncritical) vitalism in his 1843 treatise Life and Life Force . Lotze described his scientific standpoint as teleological idealism, in that metaphysics did not begin in itself, but rather in ethics .
Lotze embodied both scientific and philosophical competence to a high degree. He always tried to reconcile very heterogeneous interests. In his youth he combined his enthusiasm for science with his love for poetry; a volume of poetry published by him was judged negatively by critics. Later he dealt with the tension between science and speculation and also between logic and metaphysics. Furthermore, he tried to convey mechanism and teleology . His late work is characterized by a system experiment in which Lotze was concerned with the unity of different philosophical disciplines.
Lotze is less well known today. More recently, however, parts of his work have been given a somewhat higher level of appreciation. His great influence on the scientific and philosophical discussion of his time not only in Germany is undisputed. The English neo-Hegelianism was influenced by him as well as Ritschl and the Ritschlians or American pragmatism. In Germany, representatives of Neo-Kantianism appealed to him , among other things, he also influenced phenomenology and the Dilthey school . He also introduced the terms “ validity ” and “ value ” into the philosophical discussion. He distinguished between the three realms of reality, truth and values. His medical studies were pioneering work in the field of scientific psychology . He also made important contributions in the field of aesthetics and its history.
Since Bruno Bauch , attention has repeatedly been drawn to the possible connection between Lotze's logic and central pieces of Gottlob Frege's philosophy . The antipsychologism of validity theory and individual utterances are mentioned as common features, especially Lotse's claim that mathematics can be justified from logic.
- Metaphysics . Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1841. ( further scan , ditto )
- General pathology and therapy as mechanical natural sciences . Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1842; 2nd edition 1848 ( further scan )
- Logic . Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1843. ( further scan )
- About the concept of beauty . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1845 (reprinted from the Göttingen studies ; further scan )
- About conditions of artistic beauty . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1847 (reprinted from the Göttingen studies )
- General physiology of physical life . Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1851
- Medicinal Psychology or Physiology of the Soul . Weidmann'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig 1852 ( further scan ); anastatic reprint A. Dannenberg, Berlin 1896 (with picture Lotzes)
Microcosm. Ideas on natural history and human history. Attempt at an anthropology. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1856–1864 (this work made him known beyond the boundaries of the subject during his time)
- First volume , 1856 ( The body , the soul , the life ; further scan , ditto ); 2nd edition 1869; 3rd edition 1876 ( further scan ); 4th edition 1884; 5th edition 1896 (with picture Lotzes)
- Second volume , 1858 ( Der Mensch , Der Geist , Der Welt Lauf ; further scan , ditto , ditto ); 2nd edition 1869; 3rd edition 1878 ( further scan ); 4th edition 1885 ( further scan ); 5th edition 1905
- Third volume , 1864 ( History , Progress , The Connection of Things ; further scan , ditto ); 2nd edition 1872 ( further scan , ditto ); 3rd edition 1880; 4th edition 1888 ( further scan )
- Polemics. First issue. Regarding Prof. IH Fichte's anthropology . S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1857. ( further scan )
- History of aesthetics in Germany . (= History of Sciences in Germany. Modern Times. Volume 7). JG Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Munich 1868; another scan , ditto , ditto )
- System of philosophy. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1874/1879. (a planned third part was no longer implemented)
- Dictate / Dictate series from the lectures. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1881–1884
- Robert Lotze (ed.): Fundamentals of psychology . 1881 (winter semester 1880/81; with index of Hermann Lotze’s literary publications ; further scan , ditto ); Eduard Rehnisch (Ed.): 2nd edition 1882 ( further scan )
- Basics of the philosophy of religion . 1882 (winter semester 1878/79); 2nd edition 1884 (summer semester 1875 and winter semester 1878/79; further scan )
- Basics of natural philosophy . 1882 (winter semester 1876/77; with Lotze's certificate of departure from the University of Leipzig ; further scan )
- Basic principles of practical philosophy . 1882 (summer semester 1880); 2nd edition 1884 (summer semester 1878; further scan )
- History of German Philosophy since Kant . 1882 (summer semester 1879; with an overview of Hermann Lotze's teaching activities at the universities of Leipzig, Göttingen and Berlin 1839–1881 ); 2nd edition 1894 ( further scan )
- Basics of Metaphysics , 1883 ( ontology , cosmology , phenomenology ; further scan )
- Basics of Logic and Encyclopedia of Philosophy . 1883 ( further scan ); 2nd edition 1885 ( further scan ); 3rd edition 1891
- Basics of aesthetics . 1884 (summer semester 1856; with appendix to the biography of Hermann Lotze’s by Eduard Rehnisch)
- David Peipers (Ed.): Small writings. S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1885-1891
- Reinhardt Pester, Ernst Wolfgang Orth (ed.): Letters and documents. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2003, ISBN 3-8260-2562-8 .
- Georg Misch (Hrsg.): Logic (System of Philosophy I.) . Felix Meiner, Leipzig 1912 (with picture Lotzes); 2nd edition 1928.
- The instinct. A psychological analysis . Felix Meiner, Leipzig 1919 (reprint of Instinct in Rudolph Wagner (Hrsg.): Concise Dictionary of Physiology. Second volume, Vieweg, Braunschweig 1844, pp. 191–209. )
- Raymund Schmidt (ed.): Mikrokosmos. Ideas on natural history and human history. Three volumes. Felix Meiner, Leipzig 1923.
- Gottfried Gabriel (Ed.): Logic. First book. From thinking. Felix Meiner, Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-7873-0936-5 .
- Gottfried Gabriel (Ed.): Logic. Third book. From knowing. Felix Meiner, Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-7873-0772-9 .
- Nikolay Milkov (Ed.): Microcosm. Ideas on natural history and human history. Three volumes. Felix Meiner, Hamburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-7873-3180-2 . (Reprint of the 1923 edition)
- Carl von Prantl : Lotze: Rudolf Hermann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, pp. 288-290.
- Arthur Eastwood: Lotze's antithesis between thought and things. In: Min . 1, 1892, pp. 305-324 and 470-488 (English)
- Richard Falckenberg: Hermann Lotze. First part: The life and origin of the writings after the letters. Stuttgart 1901.
- Richard Falckenberg : Lotze: Rudolf Hermann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 52, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1906, pp. 93-97.
- Rudolf Eisler : Lotze, Rudolf Hermann . In: Philosophers' Lexicon. First edition. Berlin 1912, pp. 425–432 (at Zeno.org )
- Hermann Bohner : The basis of the Lotzesche religious philosophy. Robert Noske, Borna-Leipzig 1914. (Philos. Dissertation Erlangen)
- Jürgen Klein: The concept of structure in Rudolf Hermann Lotze (1817–1881). In: LUDUS LINGUARUM. Festschrift for Leonhard Alfes. Siegen 1980, pp. 141-155.
- Johann N. Häussler: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6 , pp. 255 f. ( ). In:
- Bernd Kettet: Lotze, Rudolf Hermann. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 5, Bautz, Herzberg 1993, ISBN 3-88309-043-3 , Sp. 270-277.
- Reinhardt Pester: Hermann Lotze. Ways of his thinking and research. A chapter in the history of German philosophy and science in the 19th century. (= Studies and materials on Neo-Kantianism. Volume 11). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1997, ISBN 3-8260-1361-1 .
- Matthias Neugebauer: Lotze and Ritschl. Kingdom of God theology between post-idealistic philosophy and modern positivism. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2002, ISBN 3-631-39106-4 (Also: Halle, Wittenberg, Universität, 2001, dissertation.)
- Frederick C. Beiser: Late German Idealism. Trendelenburg and Lotze. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013, ISBN 978-0-19-968295-9 .
- Florian Baab: The small world. Hermann Lotze's Microcosm: The Beginnings of the Philosophy of Mind in the Context of the Materialism Controversy. (= Paradeigmata. Volume 37). Felix Meiner, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-7873-3571-8 ( Open Access )
- Literature by and about Hermann Lotze in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Hermann Lotze in the German Digital Library
- Works by Hermann Lotze in the Gutenberg-DE project
- David Sullivan: Hermann Lotze. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Nikolay Milkov: Rudolf Hermann Lotze (1817–1881). In: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Lotze, Hermann Rudolph in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science (English)
- Overview of Hermann Lotze's courses at the University of Leipzig (winter semester 1839 to summer semester 1844)
- Hermann Lotze in the professorial catalog of the University of Leipzig
- Hermann Lotze in the Internet Archive
- Volker Zimmermann: Lotze, Rudolph Hermann , in: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 866 f .; here: p. 866.
- Georgi Schischkoff (Hrsg.): Philosophical dictionary. 21st edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 1982, keyword: Lotze, Rudolf Hermann. P. 419.
- Gottfried Gabriel : Frege, Lotze, and the continental roots of early analytic philosophy. In: Erich H. Reck (Ed.): From Frege to Wittgenstein: perspectives on early analytic philosophy . Oxford University Press, New York 2002, ISBN 0-19-513326-9 , pp. 39-51. (English)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Lotze, Rudolf Hermann|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 21, 1817|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Budissin (Bautzen)|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 1, 1881|
|Place of death||Berlin|