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Ctenidium molluscum

Ctenidium molluscum

Empire : Plants (Plantae)
Department : Moss (Bryophyta)
Subdivision : Bryophytina
Class : Bryopsida
Subclass : Bryidae
Order : Hypnales
Scientific name
WRBuck & Vitt

The Hypnales are an order of the moss . They contain the majority of the pleurocarpic moss. They are common all over the world and common everywhere.


The Hypnales are creeping, prostrate plants. They have only a reduced or missing central strand in the stem. The stem is covered with paraphyllia or pseudoparaphyllia, which are flake-shaped leaves on the branch primordia. The leaflets are ovate, often with wing cells. The leaf veins are usually reduced or absent. The lamina cells are elongated (prosenchymatous).

The sporogon sits on a long seta . The peristome always consists of two rows of teeth. The kalyptra has the shape of a cap and is smooth.

Habitat and occurrence

The order is cosmopolitan and often forms mass populations on forest floors and in moors. The hypnales have only been proven to be fossilized since the Tertiary . From this and from the progressively reduced vascular tissues and veins it can be concluded that they are a phylogenetically young group.


The Hypnales are the most species-rich moss order with around 4200 species, which is around a third of all mosses.

Recent genetic studies show that the Fabroniaceae is the sister group of all other Hypnales. The first branch consists of the Catagoniaceae. From this study it follows that some of the remaining taxa are likely polyphyletic (Lembophyllaceae, Neckeraceae, Brachytheciaceae), and others are paraphyletic (Lepyrodontaceae includes Stereophyllaceae, part of Brachytheciaceae includes Symphyodontaceae, and two separate parts of Neckeraceae includes the remaining, one includes the Leaembophyllaceae Brachytheciaceae, another part of the Lembophyllaceae includes Rigodiaceae and Pterigynandraceae and a second section of Neckeraceae). The rest of the families, the third part of the Neckeraceae and the fourth part of the Lembophyllaceae are likely monophyletic.


Amblystegiaceae · Anomodontaceae · Antitrichiaceae · Brachytheciaceae · Calliergonaceae · Catagoniaceae · Climaciaceae · Cryphaeaceae · Echinodiaceae · Entodontaceae · Fabroniaceae · Fontinalaceae · Habrodontaceae · Heterocladiaceae · hylocomiaceae · Hypnaceae · Lembophyllaceae · Lepyrodontaceae · Leskeaceae · Leucodontaceae · Meteoriaceae · Microtheciellaceae · Myriniaceae · Myuriaceae · neckeraceae · Orthorrhynchiaceae · Phyllogoniaceae · Plagiotheciaceae · Prionodontaceae · Pseudoleskeaceae · Pseudoleskeellaceae · Pterigynandraceae · Pterobryaceae · Pylaisiaceae · Pylaisiadelphaceae (with Platygyrium ) · Regmatodontaceae · Rhytidiaceae · Rutenbergiaceae · Scorpidiaceae · Sematophyllaceae · Sorapillaceae · Sterophyllaceae · Symphydontaceae · Theliaceae · Thuidiaceae · Trachylomataceae

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF): GBIF Checklist Bank: Hypnales . Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  2. Wolfgang Frey, Michael Stech, Eberhard Fischer: Bryophytes and Seedless Vascular Plants (= Syllabus of Plant Families. 3). 13th edition. Borntraeger, Berlin et al. 2009, ISBN 978-3-443-01063-8 , p. 216 ff.
  3. Benjamin Merget, Matthias Wolf: A molecular phylogeny of Hypnales (Bryophyta) inferred from ITS2 sequence-structure data . In: BMC Research Notes . 3, 2010, p. 320. doi : 10.1186 / 1756-0500-3-320 .


Web links

Commons : Hypnales  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files