Johann Heinrich (Luxembourg)
Johann Heinrich von Luxemburg (Czech: Jan Jindřich Lucemburský ; * February 12, 1322 in Prague ; † November 12, 1375 in Brno ) was Count of Tyrol from 1335 to 1341 and Margrave of Moravia from 1349 to 1375 .
Due to her broken marriage and the uncertain circumstances in Bohemia, Queen Elisabeth fled with the infant Johann Heinrich to her eldest daughter Margarete, who was married to Heinrich XIV. Of Lower Bavaria , in Cham in the Upper Palatinate .
After the joint victory of the armies of Ludwig of Bavaria and Johann of Luxembourg in the battle of Mühldorf on September 28, 1322 over the army of the opposing king Frederick the Fair , Ludwig the Bavarian was able to consolidate his position in the empire . Thereafter, Johann von Luxemburg began secret negotiations with his former rival for the Bohemian crown, Heinrich von Kärnten and Tirol . In 1327 they led to the engagement of King Johann's younger son Johann Heinrich to Margarete von Tirol , who was four years older , the daughter of Heinrich of Carinthia. Since he had no male offspring, the Luxembourgers could count on a considerable expansion of their power. Johann Heinrich had been sent to Tyrol by his father with a large retinue at the age of five (1327).
The marriage of Johann Heinrich and Margaret of Tyrol took place on September 16, 1330 in Innsbruck. This marriage was supposed to secure Johann von Luxemburg access to the Tyrolean and Carinthian passports and enabled him to invade northern Italy. However, as King of Bohemia, he had no claims to imperial Italy . That is why Ludwig the Bavarian and the Habsburgs again agreed their interests. They decided on November 26, 1330 in Augsburg that after the death of Heinrich of Carinthia and Tyrol, the Habsburgs of Carinthia , Carniola and parts of South Tyrol and the Wittelsbachers should receive northern Tyrol . The now married Johann Heinrich and Margarete were only supposed to rule in the south of Tyrol.
On April 2nd, 1335 Heinrich of Carinthia and Tyrol died. Since the female succession of Tyrol and Carinthia was tied to a permit from the emperor, Ludwig the Bavarian issued this in February 1335. On May 2, 1335, the two dukes of Austria Albrecht II and Otto became with Carinthia, Carniola, South Tyrol and over the Vogtei the dioceses of Trento and Brixen enfeoffed. Both Habsburgs referred to their maternal inheritance, as their mother Elisabeth came from the Meinhardin family and was a sister of Heinrich of Carinthia and Tyrol. The Tyrolean nobility and the cities resisted the conquest of the Wittelsbach and Habsburgs.
That is why Johann von Luxemburg entrusted his older son Karl, at the time margrave in Moravia , with the conquest of Tyrol and quickly brought his peace negotiations with the Polish King Casimir to an end. He renounced his claims to the Polish royal title, but secured the Silesian duchies for the crown of Bohemia in the Treaty of Trenčín in 1335 . Relieved of the war against Poland, he was able to occupy Upper Austria militarily in 1336 . The Habsburgs were ready to end their fighting in Tyrol. Finally, King Johann renounced Carinthia and Carniola in favor of the Habsburgs in the Peace of Enns on October 9, 1336. Ludwig the Bavarian withdrew from Tyrol. Only now could Margarete and Johann Heinrich take over their inheritance.
Johann von Luxemburg promised the Tyrolean estates not to entrust any foreigner with an office in Tyrol. He also promised the Tyroleans generous financial support. Both agreements were not kept by the Luxembourgers. From 1335 to 1338, Karl acted as regent of the country for his brother, who was still under age. His most important advisor was the Bishop of Trento , Nikolaus von Brünn , to whom Johann transferred the administration of the County of Tyrol after 1338. Other lucrative offices and dominions were given to Karl and Johann Heinrich, and were filled with Bohemian officials. This led to the estrangement of the Tyrolean nobility, who preferred their Görzer Countess Margarete. The marriage between Johann Heinrich and Margarete was also unhappy for both partners, their relationship was marked by mutual aversion.
In May 1340 Karl and Johann Heinrich traveled to Krakow to see the Polish king, after which they visited the Hungarian king in Visegrád . During this time, some Tyrolean nobles, together with Margarete, started an uprising against the rule of Luxembourg. Bishop Nicholas of Brno organized the suppression of the uprising and demanded the immediate return of the Luxembourgers. Johann Heinrich returned to Tyrol and the leaders of the rebels were executed. Margarete therefore turned to Ludwig the Bavarian and, with his help, dared to rebel against the Luxembourgers. On November 1, 1341, she refused entry to Johann Heinrich, who had come from the hunt, to her Castle in Tyrol . Therefore Johann Heinrich fled to the Patriarch of Aquileja , where he stayed for some time.
Since Margarete sought to dissolve her marriage, she publicly accused Johann Heinrich of impotence. Therefore, Ludwig the Bavarian commissioned the scholars Marsilius of Padua and William von Ockham with the preparation of a corresponding report. The scholars found the marriage to be invalid, since the marriage had not been consummated and thus not become legally binding because of Johann Heinrich's alleged impotence. Thereupon Ludwig the Bavarian ordered the divorce of Margarete from Johann Heinrich and on February 10, 1342 he married his own son Ludwig the Brandenburg to her. According to church law , the marriage between Margarete and Johann Heinrich was not dissolved, but the Luxembourg rule in Tyrol ended.
The Luxembourgers were not ready to accept these humiliations. Therefore they formed a coalition with Pope Clement VI. , who resided in Avignon since 1342 , and the French court. The negotiations led by Heinrich's brother Karl with Ludwig the Bavarian, whose daughter Johann Heinrich was to marry, were broken off prematurely. In 1345, the allegedly impotent Johann Heinrich fathered an illegitimate child. A year later, Johann von Luxemburg fell in the battle of Crécy . With his will, which had been drawn up beforehand, he decreed the transfer of the administration of the Margraviate of Moravia to his son Johann Heinrich.
After the canonical divorce, Johann Heinrich married Margarete von Troppau in 1349. On December 26, 1349 he was enfeoffed by his brother Karl with the margraviate of Moravia, which had already been reduced to the Diocese of Olomouc and the Duchy of Opava on April 7, 1348 , which were directly subordinated to the crown of Bohemia as a direct fief . On the occasion of the enfeoffment, Johann Heinrich had to forego the crown of Bohemia for himself and his descendants if there were descendants of Karl. After the enfeoffment, Johann Heinrich renounced the title of a Count of Tyrol or Duke of Carinthia. This made it possible to come to an understanding with the Habsburgs.
During the absence of his brother Karl, Johann Heinrich worked as his governor in Bohemia. In 1348 he stipulated that all merchants from Austria, Hungary, Poland and elsewhere had to drive through Brno with their goods. As Margrave of Moravia, he resided in Brno from 1349, where he founded an Augustinian monastery in 1356 and rebuilt the castle for the needs of his court. In 1375 he founded the Königsfeld Charterhouse near Brno. His prudent government led to a heyday in Moravia.
Johann Heinrich was married four times:
- On September 16, 1330 he married Margaret of Tyrol , a daughter of Heinrich of Carinthia and Tyrol. The childless marriage was divorced in 1341 by Ludwig the Bavarian. The divorce under canon law took place in 1349.
- In 1349 Johann Heinrich married Margarete von Troppau (1330-1363), a daughter of Duke Nikolaus II. The children came from this marriage
- Jobst of Moravia (1351-1411); Margrave of Moravia, Margrave of Brandenburg and German King
- Catherine (1352-1378); ⚭ 1372 Duke Heinrich von Falkenberg († 1382)
- Procopius of Moravia (around 1355–1405); Margrave of Moravia
- Johann Sobieslav , Bishop of Leitomischl, Patriarch of Aquileia
- Elisabeth (after 1355–1400); married Wilhelm , Margrave of Meißen (1343–1407) in 1366
- Anna († before 1405), was married to Peter von Sternberg († 1397).
- After the death of his second wife, Johann Heinrich married Margarete (1346-1366), a daughter of Albrecht II of Austria and widow of Meinhard III, on February 26, 1364 . von Tirol, a son of Margarete von Tirol from her second marriage to Ludwig the Brandenburger. I.e. Johann Heinrich married the widowed daughter-in-law of his divorced wife.
- Johann Heinrich's fourth wife was Elisabeth, daughter of Count Albrecht von Oettingen, whom he married in 1366 or 1367. Together with her, shortly before his death, he founded the Kartause Královo Pole ( Königsfeld ) near Brno, which St. Trinity was consecrated.
- Alfons Huber: Johann Heinrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, pp. 234-236.
- Jörg K. Hoensch : The Luxembourgers - A late medieval dynasty of pan-European importance 1308–1437 . Verlag W. Kohlhammer Stuttgart; Edition 2000; ISBN 3-17-015159-2
- Ferdinand Seibt : Karl IV. - An Emperor in Europe 1346 to 1378 . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG Munich, 5th edition 1994. ISBN 3-423-04641-4
- Jiří Spěváček: Charles IV. - His life and statesmanship . Academia Praha - Union Verlag Berlin 1979
- Josef Riedmann: History of Tyrol . Publishing house for history and politics, Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-7028-0284-3
- The Chronicle of Austria . Chronik Verlag in the Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag GmbH Gütersloh / Munich. 4th revised and updated edition 1994, ISBN 3-570-14400-3
- Zdeněk Fiala: Předhusitské Čechy 1310-1419 . Prague 1968.
- Cassian Anton von Roschmann: History of the princes of Tyrol: for the use of the studying youth in the kk states . Published 1781, p. 61 ( Google eBook, full view )
Regent (Count) of Tyrol
1335–1341 ( holds
the title until 1348)
Margrave of Moravia
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Johann Heinrich von Luxemburg (full name); Jan Jindřich Lucemburský|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Count of Tyrol, Margrave of Moravia|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 12, 1322|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Prague|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 12, 1375|
|Place of death||Brno|