|location||Magadan Oblast ( Russia )|
|part of||East Siberian mountain country|
The Kolyma ( Russian Колымское нагорье, Kolymskoje nagorje or Колымский хребет, Kolymski Chrebet; also Гыдан or Гедан, Gydan or gedan) is an extended, for the most part in the oblast Magadan located and up to high mountains in the northeast in Asian part of Russia .
The Kolyma Mountains as part of the East Siberian mountainous region consists of a series of individual mountain ranges or mountains and plateaus , which separate the Kolyma basin in the north from the basin of rivers flowing into the Sea of Okhotsk in the south and south-east. It stretches for about 1,300 km from the upper reaches of the Ola and Bujunda rivers in the southwest to the sources of the Anadyr in the northeast.
In the west the Verkhoyansk Mountains join over the Kolyma valley , in the northwest the Tscherski Mountains and the Jukagiren Plateau . In the north the Kolyma Mountains merge into the Anjuigebirge , in the northeast into the Anadyr Plateau and in the east over some highland areas gradually into the Korjakengebirge .
In the south-western part of the Kolyma Mountains, plateaus predominate, which are dominated by short, 1500–1800 m high ridges and granite massifs . A series of mountain ranges separated by tectonic depressions join in the northeast , including:
- the Maimandschagebirge with a height of up to 1,800 m
- the Olaplateau , over which the Kolymatrakt overcomes the Kolyma Mountains (the paved road built in the times of the Gulag , which connects Magadan with the upper reaches of Kolyma and Indigirka as well as the east of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) )
- the Seimchan-Bujunda Depression
- the Omsuktschan Mountains, with the 1,962 m high highest mountain in the Kolyma Mountains
- the Omsuktschansenke
- the Korkodon Mountains
- the Kedon Mountains
- the Upper Kedon Depression
- the Conga Mountains
- the Molongda Mountains
Between the Kolyma tributary Korkodon and the Ola lies the plateau-like Omoloimassiv , which is formed by Proterozoic gneiss and crystalline schists . The western part of the Kolyma Mountains is mainly formed by sedimentary rocks from the Permian , Triassic and Jurassic , while effusive rocks predominate in the eastern part . With the numerous Mesozoic granite intrusions is gold - tin - and Seltenerdmetallvererzung connected. In the depressions are coal and brown coal deposits as well as thermal springs .
The climate on the western slope of the Kolyma Mountains is strictly continental: the mean July temperatures are 8–10 ° С, the mean January temperatures -40 ° С. The summers are dry. On the south-eastern flank of the mountains there is a cold, humid, windy monsoon climate with mean July temperatures of 4 ° С and mean January temperatures of −20 ° С.
Two thirds of the area of the Kolyma Mountains are free from forests. Moss and lichen tundra as well as curved wood from Siberian stone pine predominate . The valleys and the slopes up to a height of 500 m in the north and 800 m in the south are covered by sparse larch forests. Riparian forests are also widespread in the river valleys .
In the Kolyma Mountains (on the Kolyma and its tributaries) gold was and is mined (especially in the times of the Gulag ) , see gold mining on the Kolyma . Tin and rare earth metals are also mined. Smaller coal deposits are exploited for local and regional needs.
- Article Kolyma Mountains in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D063088~2a%3D~2b%3DKolymagebirge