Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

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Location of Mordovia within Russia

The Mordovian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (short Mordovian ASSR , Mordovia , Russian Мордовская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика (АССР) / Mordowskaja ASSR , therefore German also Mordowische ASSR , Mordovia ) was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) of the Soviet Union from 1934 until 1991.

The titular nation was the Mordvins , a Finno-Ugric people with the two main groups Ersja and Mokscha , which are also considered separate ethnic groups, but were always officially counted as one ethnic group in the Soviet period.


The 26,200 km² Mordovian ASSR was about halfway between Moscow and the Volga , southwest of the "Volga knee" where the Volga near the mouth of the Kama turns from its eastern flow direction to the south.

The north-western part of the republic was occupied by the Oka-Don plain , while the south-east lay in the area of ​​the Volga plate (height up to 330  m ). The area was traversed by the Moksha and Sura and their tributaries.

The capital was Saransk .


The population of Mordovia in 1989 was 964,132 (corresponding to 37 inhabitants per km²). Since the establishment of the republic, the number of inhabitants has mostly decreased, until today (2009) to 833,031.

Population development
year Residents
1926 1,259,000
1939 1,187,000
1959 1,001,994
1970 1,029,562
1979 990.617
1989 964.132

Note : census data (1926 and 1939 rounded; 1926 for the territory of the later republic)

The Mordvines made up only 32.5% of the population in 1989, almost two thirds were Russians .


Mordovian ASSR (dark green) in 1940

The Mordovian ASSR was founded on December 20, 1934. A Mordovian district ( Okrug ) had previously existed in the same area since July 16, 1928 , which was converted into the Mordovian Autonomous Region (Autonomous Oblast ) on January 10, 1930 and belonged to the Middle Volga region (Srednewolschki krai) .

During the period of the collapse of the Soviet Union , Mordovia, like the other Autonomous Republics, declared itself a Soviet Socialist Republic (Mordovian SSR) in 1991 . Since 1993 it has been a federal subject of Russia as the Republic of Mordovia .

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