Police training in Austria
The police training in Austria includes the basic and continuing education of the organs of public security . These include the law enforcement officers of the constabulary Federal Police and the municipality of wax body and the members of the general administrative service, including the staff jurist service with the security authorities are (police lawyers).
Locations of the security executive education centers
BZS Vienna in the Moroccan Barracks
The security academy (.SIAK), a department of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, is entrusted with the training . The training itself takes place in one of the eleven training centers of the security executive (BZS), which are subordinate to the director of the .SIAK in technical terms, but are managed by a senior executive officer. These are
- the BZS Absam
- the BZS Eisenstadt
- the BZS Feldkirch
- the BZS Graz
- the BZS Großgmain
- the BZS Krumpendorf am Wörthersee
- the BZS Linz
- the BZS St. Pölten
- the BZS Traiskirchen
- the BZS Vienna
- the BZS Ybbs on the Danube
The BZS Traiskirchen acted as service authority 1st instance for all training centers until August 31, 2016. The training takes place according to a nationwide uniform curriculum, taking into account state-specific legislation. Such state-specific priorities are, among other things, state laws which the future organs of the public security service have been entrusted with enforcing. In autumn 2016, work began on adapting an existing building in St. Pölten in order to install the third training center on Lower Austrian soil, which began operations in autumn 2017. In the spring of 2019, classes are also to begin in the new Wels education center . In March 2020, classes are also scheduled to start in the new Salzburg education center . On March 4, 2020, classes began in the new Salzburg Education Center.
Training of law enforcement officers
Classification of basic police training
There is no legally defined job profile for law enforcement officers, nor is there a recognized professional qualification. The police training cannot be found in the systematics of the public education system, it is treated without crediting in the tertiary education area "5B", but has all the requirements for a classification as ISCED 5B (= non-academic tertiary education of at least two years) within the framework of ISCED97 . The duration of 24 months as well as the transparency of the teaching content and quality assurance measures for the qualification of the teachers (completion of a university-level course ) speak in favor of this.
If one describes the activity of an executive officer, the general picture is as follows: A police officer must be ready and able to conscientiously and precisely carry out the various tasks for the general public at any time of the day or night. He is the contact person and helper who is looking for help for worries and needs. The range of tasks ranges from providing assistance, hazard research and prevention of danger to search, investigation and surveillance services to information and advisory activities. Often in a matter of seconds, a dangerous, sensitive situation has to be grasped, a decision made and nevertheless acted prudently, impartially, politely and courteously.
The employee has to document the activities and any incidents without gaps and to write notifications, reports and sketches about the results of the surveys and incidents and to forward them to the courts and various authorities. This can lead to lengthy and persevering surveys as well as to longer working hours in office work in the departments.
Police officers should therefore have a well-developed personality, a correct and well-groomed demeanor and a sense of responsibility. Further prerequisites are personal initiative as well as good expressiveness in word and writing, mental agility, logical thinking and psychological resilience. A police officer is also expected to be in good physical training and perseverance. All these requirements are therefore carefully checked for applicants for training as police officers.
Admission to the police force is equally open to men and women. In order to be able to begin the basic police training for admission to the Federal Police Guard, basic requirements must be met, some of which are prescribed by law, but others can be changed by the employer at any time.
The legal requirements according to the Civil Service Law Act are
- The Austrian citizenship - Unlike, for example, to Germany here not only a sufficient EU citizenship .
- Full capacity to act - The only permitted restriction on the capacity to act is the not yet reached minimum age of 18 years at the time of application.
- Personal, professional and mental aptitude for the fulfillment of the tasks associated with the intended use - this includes an impeccable reputation and no criminal record, but also no serious administrative offenses such as offenses in connection with alcohol, hit-and-run, etc., as well as physical Fitness. This means to be organically and functionally healthy, to have a normal weight, to be able to show a perfect visual performance, normal color sense as well as a perfect hearing performance and a flawless (renovated) dentition. When assessing body weight, the body mass index (BMI) is used, which must be in the range of 18 to 28.
- A minimum age of 18 years when entering executive service - The previous maximum age of 30 years was abolished on January 1, 2012.
- The driving license of class B, which was granted without conditions that would provide for a vehicle-related adaptation for this class (Section 4, Paragraph 1 of the Driving License Act - Health Ordinance).
- In the case of conscripts, the fully completed military service, and in the case of civil service conscripts, the completed civil service.
- The Austrian swimmer badge of the qualification level "speed swimmer" or that of a higher level.
- Successful completion of the entrance exam.
The minimum height of 168 cm for men and 163 cm for women required until the end of 2011 has been deleted. Since an applicant must have a class B driver's license when joining the police force, regardless of gender, the minimum height of 155 cm prescribed inDriving License Act-Health Ordinance.
Invisible tattoos covered by the uniform (long-sleeved shirt) and permanent make-up are allowed, provided they are
- DOES NOT indicate membership in a group endangering the constitution.
- DO NOT shake the public's trust in the factual performance of the intended official tasks.
Every applicant who meets the requirements for admission to the executive service has the opportunity to apply to the responsible regional police headquarters exclusively via the job exchange of the Republic of Austria. However, the application is only valid if it is submitted within the respective application deadline. The application must be attached:
- Copy of passport or proof of citizenship
- Copy of class B driving license (front and back)
- Copy of the confirmation of the military or community service
- If unsuitable, the status sheet of the Austrian Armed Forces, in which the reason for unsuitability is given
- Notice of exemption from the Austrian Armed Forces for people who have already completed military service abroad or who are no longer called up in Austria due to their age
- Proof of the Austrian swimmer badge of the qualification level "speed swimmer" or higher
- Security statement
- Police doctor questionnaire
- Photos of any tattoos
- Medical clearance for a sports test
- X-ray findings of the lungs (not older than three months when the application is submitted)
- Ophthalmologic findings (only in the case of poor eyesight, red-green color impairment or after an eye operation) ◦ for laser eye surgery (application no earlier than 6 months after the operation)
- Laboratory results with the following values (not older than three months when submitting the application):
- Lowering, creatinine, GGT, GPT, GOT, cholesterol (HDL, LDL), triglycerides, uric acid, blood sugar, KBB + Diff, HIV test, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, urine findings (sugar, protein, blood)
It is not a prerequisite to have learned a profession or to have passed the Matura before training as a police officer . Even having a secondary school certificate is not mandatory. In practice, however, applicants without prior professional or school qualifications are not eligible.
Sequence of the selection process
The selection process is completed on two test days within a short period of time.
- Psychological aptitude testing - this part comprises different groups of tasks such as spelling and grammar tests , cognitive ability tests and a personality questionnaire
- Clinical psychiatric test procedure - this screening procedure consists of three test parts and is used to query personality traits and risk behavior
- Sports test - consists of the following disciplines to be carried out in this order: - backcountry run - push-ups - pendulum run
- Medical examination - here the health and thus the physical suitability for the executive service is carried out. The examination is made up as follows: - urine output - vision and hearing test, - height and weight measurement, - ECG - spirometry - bicycle ergometry - clinical examination - submitted medical specialist reports and the police doctor's questionnaire are checked by the police doctor as part of the selection process
- Aptitude interview - serves to ascertain personality traits through personal introduction and standardized questions by a committee of three.
The employment relationship is initially based on a service contract and is limited to 24 months (duration of basic training); This so-called training relationship, which is intended as preparation for executive service, can be terminated by the employer within a period of two weeks without giving reasons if the training is unsuccessful. Only after successful completion of the training will you be accepted into the civil service. The new executive officers are sworn in within four weeks of the start of training. The swearing-in formula, which is laid down in Section 7 (1) of the Civil Service Law Act, reads: "I pledge that I will follow the laws of the Republic of Austria and that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill all of the duties associated with my office." Training as a contract servant also, but based on the Contract Servants Act. After acceptance into the civil service, the vow is made one more time.
The basic training consists of four sections:
Face-to-face training (12 months)
In the face-to-face training, the trainees are taught basic legal knowledge as well as basic tactical and technical skills. The first part of the training makes it possible to process the experiences in the subsequent internship and classify executive action. The first section is concluded with the so-called “technical discussion”, an examination before a committee on the seven legal subjects. In the event of a successful completion of the legal subject “traffic law”, the student is authorized by the respective security authority to impose administrative penalties in the form of an organ penalty order (“speeding ticket”) in the subsequent internship .
Internships (3 months)
The police students are assigned to police inspections . Officials from the executive field service accompany the police students, enable them to experience executive intervention and familiarize them with the organization and the organizational processes.
Face-to-face training (5 months)
Theoretical training in the training center - the main part sensitizes the students to those legal matters that are important for the intervention of the executive branch. The police students get to know the intention of the legislature and understand laws and regulations according to their importance. In addition, tactical and technical instruments are taught.
Internships (4 months)
Practical training at the police station - Already during the training, pupils can be called in for service failures, for example at major events.
The curriculum includes the following subjects:
- Applied Psychology
- Communication and conflict management
- Professional ethics
- Social theory
- Human rights
- Service law
- Private law
- Security Police Doctrine
- Criminal law - This includes the criminal code , but also the drug law and the prohibition law
- Constitutional Law and European Union
- Traffic law - these include B. the 1960 Road Traffic Act , the Motor Vehicle Act and the Driving License Act
- Administrative law
Action and operational training
- Action training
- Deployment technology
- Deployment tactics
- Shooting training and gun knowledge
- Information technology
- Driving technique
- Large security and order service
- First aid
- Interactive training
- Office communication and EDP
- foreign languages
- Thematic teaching
Completion of basic training
At the end of the basic training, the knowledge of the contract employees is tested in a committee examination. After passing this test, the police officer is taken on as a civil servant and receives the rank of " inspector " (employment group E2b). The service examination, which is taken at the end of the training, entitles the holder to take a professional maturity examination .
Depending on the personnel requirements, there is the possibility of further training:
Training as a service officer, service group E2a
In this six-month basic training course, which can only be attended after passing a selection test, both future uniformed officers and civilian E2a officers in the criminal service are trained. Uniformed E2a officers are usually used as clerks or group commanders at police inspections after they have been retired, whereby their training means that they can pursue a career up to the head of a police inspection, a department in a state police department or the deputy district police commander of a smaller district. Special further training for the criminal service takes place after the course at the respective department. After graduation, those officers who have been assigned to an office active in the criminal service are provided with civilian clothes and a civilian company car; but they are equipped with service weapons and aids (for example handcuffs).
The criminal investigation service is responsible for investigating criminal offenses, i.e. criminal offenses in the area of serious crime, which can be roughly divided into the following groups:
- Offenses against life and limb (e.g. murder)
- Offenses against other people's assets (e.g. serious theft, robbery, serious fraud, embezzlement)
- Offenses against morality (e.g. rape)
- Counterfeiting offenses (e.g. forgery of documents, counterfeiting of money)
In judicial prosecution (see below), detectives act as executive organs that the public prosecutor or examining magistrate can use for operational investigations. Irrespective of the fact that criminal police officers in various specialist groups deal exclusively with investigations into criminal offenses, every uniformed law enforcement officer also carries out everyday criminal investigations in the area of his inspection. This means that he also reports to the public prosecutor, questioning suspects and making arrests.
With regard to their ranks, officers in the criminal service do not differ fundamentally from uniformed police officers; after training, one usually has the rank of group inspector or district inspector. Contrary to an opinion that is partly spread through TV series, there are no "Kommissare" (Kommissar = a rank of the German police) in Austria.
Training to become a chief officer ("officer"), application group E1
Possible uses: for example city or district police commander, state police director.
Requirements: at least one year of service as a senior civil servant with Matura or B-Matura as well as passing a two-part, extremely selective and nationwide selection test (technical examination as well as assessment center and sports test).
Education: three-year bachelor's degree in "Police Leadership" at the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt , graduation with the academic degree Bachelor of Arts in Police Leadership . The associated master’s degree is titled “Strategic Security Management”, is organized on a part-time basis and graduates graduate with the internationally recognized degree “Master of Arts in Security Management”.
- From 1974 to 1984 the training of police officers in the area of the Vienna Federal Police Directorate was regulated by the Institute of Police Interns. Male adolescents from the age of 15 could enter a kind of "police apprenticeship", which lasted three years and in the course of which the military service was also performed. The FPÖ called for this type of police training to be reintroduced. In the course of the coalition negotiations after the 2017 National Council election, the negotiating partners ÖVP and FPÖ agreed to create a new apprenticeship as an “administrative and executive apprentice”.
- From 1910 to 2002 the Gendarmeriezentralschule existed in Mödling , in which the training of employees of the Federal Gendarmerie was carried out centrally for all of Austria .
Training in general administrative service
In addition to training executive employees, the SIAK also trains employees of the general administrative service who work in the Federal Ministry of the Interior and the subordinate bodies. This includes the usage / remuneration groups A1 / v1: (legal service (police lawyers), other scientific use), A2 / v2, A3 / v3 and A4 / v4. Training in general administrative services also includes police doctors and employees taken on by Post and Telecom, who are trained here to become executive assistants.
- noen.at "St. Pölten: Police inspection and education center have been opened"
- Upper Austria News - "Lessons at the Wels Police School should start in spring 2019"
- New police school: renovation started
- Modern police school starts operations
- http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/BMI_SIAK/masterstudienga/start.aspx BM.I - Master's degree "Strategic Security Management"
- Creation of the "police officer" apprenticeship - introduction of the "police trainee" training model (870 / A (E)). Parliament Austria , November 19, 2009, accessed on May 5, 2012 .
- kurier.at - "Coalition: Massive tightening of asylum planned"
- SIAK syllabus and timetable for basic police training (PDF; 406 kB)
- .SIAK website for basic police training
- "Kleine Zeitung" - a dream job as a police officer? The stations of the training ( Memento from October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- "wien.orf.at" - Police: Targeted training against racism