Weblog software / web CMS
|Publishing year||May 27, 2003|
( August 11, 2020 )
|operating system||Platform independence|
|License||GNU General Public License, version 2.0 or later|
WordPress is a free content management system . It was programmed as software for weblogs by Matthew Mullenweg from 2003 onwards and is constantly being further developed as an open source project. WordPress is the most widespread system for operating websites with around 50% of all CMS and 32% of all websites.
In WordPress, each post can be assigned freely definable categories, navigation elements are automatically generated accordingly. The system also offers reader comments with the option of checking them before publication, management of user roles and rights and the option of external plug-ins , with which WordPress can be expanded towards a full-fledged CMS.
WordPress is based on the PHP scripting language (PHP 7 or higher is recommended) and requires a MySQL or MariaDB database. It is free software licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPLv2). According to the developers, the system attaches great importance to web standards , elegance, user friendliness and easy adaptability. WordPress was created on the basis of the software b2 . The current WordPress version 5.5 Eckstine was released on August 11, 2020.
In 2001/2002, Michel Valdrighi developed a weblog system written in PHP called b2 / cafelog , which was published under the GPL. A few months after Valdrighi had stopped developing b2, Matthew Mullenweg announced on his blog in January 2003 that he wanted to write a new weblog software based on the b2 code base that should be easy to use, flexible and easily adaptable. A short time later he started developing WordPress together with Mike Little.
The first stable version of WordPress was released on January 3rd, 2004. From version 1.0.1 all major versions are named after jazz musicians . After Michel Valdrighi had also joined the Mullenweg developer group, WordPress became the official successor to b2. The range of functions has been expanded over the years . From version 1.5 ("Strayhorn") WordPress supports the administration of static pages, ie posts outside the normal weblog chronology. This created the basis for using WordPress not only as a pure weblog software, but also as a simple content management system.
In August 2005 Matt Mullenweg founded the company Automattic together with a few other developers with the aim of offering additional blogging services and better coordinating the development of WordPress. In the same year, Automattic launched the blog hosting service WordPress.com , which is based on the multi-user version of WordPress. A year later, the first WordCamp , an informal meeting similar to a barcamp , took place in San Francisco .
The San Francisco-based WordPress Foundation was founded by Matt Mullenweg to support the development of WordPress. The Principal Officer is Mullenweg himself. It is a non-profit organization under 501 (c) 3 . It has been commissioned by Automattic to protect the WordPress, WordCamp and others brands.
In 2007 WordPress won the Open Source CMS Award in the Best Open Source Social Networking Content Management System category and in 2009 in the Overall Best Open Source CMS category .
WordPress was used on approximately 75 million websites in 2014. In 2015, around a quarter of all websites were operated with WordPress, followed by Joomla and Drupal with a market share of around five percent each. Version 4.9, released in November, had been downloaded around 136.6 million times by August 2018. Almost 60% of all websites that were created with the help of a content management system are based on WordPress. This corresponds to a share of around 30.7% of all websites on the Internet.
The "5-minute installation"
According to the developer, it takes less than five minutes from downloading the package with the source code to the finished blog. The setup takes place via a web browser and does not require any administrative knowledge beyond the creation of the database .
WordPress supports the creation and management of blog articles. The individual articles can be classified in different categories. In addition, tags and other self-defined taxonomies (using "Custom Taxonomies") and metadata (using "user-defined fields") can be assigned to an article . In addition to the normal presentation as a website, the blog posts are also offered to readers via web feeds in the protocols RSS 2.0, RSS 0.92, RDF 1.0 and Atom 0.3.
In addition to articles, WordPress can also be used to create and manage static pages outside the blog hierarchy . Version 2.6 also supports the versioning of articles and pages. WordPress can also manage comment entries and links. There is a simple editing system with five user roles (administrator, editor, author, employee, reader), a media gallery that can be used to upload data, and an integrated full-text search. In addition, TinyMCE is activated as a text editor by default. In December 2018, however, TinyMCE was replaced by WordPress Gutenberg. The WYSIWYG editor can be downloaded as a plug-in for versions from 4.x and is firmly integrated in the new WordPress version 5.0. With the new editor, users no longer need to have CSS or HTML knowledge to design websites.
With the help of plug-ins , WordPress can be expanded to include various functions. All of these extensions can be edited using the built-in code editor.
A total of around 55,000 free plug-ins are available in the plug-in directory in October 2019. There are, for example, plug-ins that enable the use of other login methods such as LDAP , OpenID or Shibboleth , connect your own blog to Twitter or add a statistics function to WordPress.
Automattic also offers plug-ins that enable a connection with other in-house projects such as the forum software called bbPress or services such as the anti-spam service Akismet .
The look of a website is determined by themes in WordPress . The design and program core of WordPress are separated, which means that individual designs can be developed without being familiar with the programming of the software itself. However, in WordPress it is also possible to program various functions directly into a theme, which means that this separation can be partially removed.
Most themes consist of PHP functions, HTML code and CSS files and have basically the same structure. Therefore, some developers have special themes that already contain all the necessary elements and thus simplify the development of your own theme. Themes, like plug-ins, can be edited in the editor of the basic system; from version 4.9 onwards, syntax highlighting and the saving of drafts are supported.
From version 1.5 to 3.0 the default theme was Kubrick (named after director Stanley Kubrick ). From version 3.0 WordPress uses the new Twenty Ten (German 2010) theme by default , the previously included Classic and Default (Kubrick) themes are only available separately. Between 2011 and 2017, the standard themes Twenty Eleven , Twenty Twelve , Twenty Thirteen , Twenty Fourteen , Twenty Fifteen , Twenty Sixteen and Twenty Seventeen were added, each named after the year of publication. Many other themes for WordPress are also available on the developers' websites and via the built-in theme browser. Themes, like WordPress itself, are covered by the GPL.
Both the themes and the plug-ins have free and paid offers. Free themes, provided they can be installed via the WordPress repository, go through a release process by verified WordPress developers. Paid themes, on the other hand, are only available from third-party providers and often offer additional functions that are not included with free themes. In order to be able to use WordPress, at least one installed theme is required.
In May 2012, WordPress developer Brad Touesnard set up an unofficial app store. This enables users to obtain plug-ins, so-called premium themes , that are not freely available from a central point of contact .
Wordpress offers the option of using child themes to adapt and expand the design and functionality of an already installed theme (called parent theme ) without endangering the security of updates. A child theme replaces individual code parts of the parent theme. These changes are saved separately and are not overwritten when the parent theme is updated.
|WordPress trunk||version||Release name||publication||Remarks|
|b2||Older version; no longer supported: 0.70||-||May 27, 2003||0.70 was almost identical to the last b2 version, but fixed some bugs. Only 0.71 gold is still available today through the wordpress.org archive.|
|WordPress 1||Older version; no longer supported: 1.0||Davis||January 3, 2004||First stable version|
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.2||Mingus||May 22, 2004||New features: support for plug-ins|
|Older version; no longer supported: 1.5||Strayhorn||February 17, 2005||Innovations: Administration of static pages, new template system.|
|WordPress 2||Older version; no longer supported: 2.0||Duke||December 31, 2005||Innovations: various improvements in the area of administration, image import and plug-in connection. Should originally be provided with security updates for 5 years. However, this plan was abandoned in summer 2009.|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.1||Ella||January 22, 2007||Innovations: autosave function, upload manager|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.2||Getz||May 16, 2007||New features: Support for widgets and the Atom feed format|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.3||Dexter||September 24, 2007||New features: native support for tags (keywords), improved text editor|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.5||Brecker||March 29, 2008||Innovations: redesigned administration menu, tag management, "dashboard widgets", improved encryption for passwords|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.6||Tyner||July 15, 2008||Innovations: Versioning of articles and pages, support for Google Gears , previews for themes|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.7||Coltrane||December 10, 2008||Innovations: completely new administration interface, function for automatic updates, simplified plug-in installation from the administration menu|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.8||Baker||June 11, 2009||Innovations: simple installation of themes similar to that for plug-ins, new administration interface for widgets|
|Older version; no longer supported: 2.9||Carmen||December 18, 2009||New features: Recycle bin for articles, pages and comments; Editing functions for images (cutting, rotating, mirroring)|
|WordPress 3||Older version; no longer supported: 3.0||Thelonious||June 17, 2010||Innovations: Merging of WordPress and WordPress µ, new standard theme Twenty Ten , editor for creating website menus|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.1||Reinhardt||February 23, 2011||Innovations: extended taxonomy queries, adminbar ( toolbar in the frontend, via which one can access backend functions), post formats (article format templates), easier internal linking|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.2||Gershwin||4th July 2011||Innovations: a full-screen mode for the editor for "free writing" is added, the appearance of the administration interface is changed, a new standard theme ( Twenty Eleven ) is being delivered. The system requirements will be increased to PHP 5.2.4 and MySQL 5.0 and Internet Explorer 6 will no longer be supported.|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.3||Sonny||December 12, 2011||Innovations: improved uploader for media, improved navigation bar in the administration area|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.4||Green||June 13, 2012||Innovations: Improvement of design functions (“Theme Customizer”), user-defined headers with flexible sizes, Twitter integration and HTML in the image descriptions|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.5||Elvin||December 11, 2012||New features: support for the retina display , tool for color selection, new standard theme Twenty Twelve , simpler workflow for images, individual graphics for header and footer|
|Older version; no longer supported: 3.6||Oscar||1 August 2013||Innovations: new theme Twenty Thirteen , improvements in the admin area, improvement of the interface for post formats, improvement of the interface for menus, update for revisions, automatic saving and post-locking|
|Older version; still supported: 3.7||Basie||October 24, 2013||New features: independent update, notification of weak passwords, better global support, new sorting logic for search results|
|Older version; still supported: 3.8||Parker||December 12th 2013||Innovations: new design in the administration area, new standard theme Twenty Fourteen , improved adjustments to different screen sizes and resolutions|
|Older version; still supported: 3.9||Smith||April 16, 2014||New features: Update for the visual editor ( WYSIWYG ), drag & drop function in the editor, playlists for videos and audios, improved theme browser, gallery preview in the editor|
|WordPress 4||Older version; still supported: 4.0||Benny||4th September 2014||Innovations: additional grid view for the media library as well as a filter by type, new design of the plug-in installation, language selection during the installation process , preview of embedded URLs in the visual editor, automatic resizing of the editor, widgets in its own customizer panel, improved interaction with editor content|
|Older version; still supported: 4.1||Dinah||December 18, 2014||Innovations: new standard theme Twenty Fifteen , distraction-free writing, language setting can be changed at any time in the settings, you can log out of the blog from anywhere, integration of videos hosted on Vine , plug-in suggestions based on the plug-ins used, several improvements " under the hood"|
|Older version; still supported: 4.2||Powell||April 23, 2015||Innovations: simplified switching between already installed WordPress themes, new workflow when updating plug-ins, as these will be loaded in the background in the future, revision of "Press This", simplification of parts of the web content, emoji support|
|Older version; still supported: 4.3||Billie||August 18, 2015||Innovations: safer pages through better passwords, menu management and website icon in the customizer, faster formatting in the editor through formatting abbreviations|
|Older version; still supported: 4.4||Clifford||December 8, 2015||Innovations: new standard theme Twenty Sixteen , responsive images, embedding of posts|
|Older version; still supported: 4.5||Coleman||April 12, 2016||Innovations: Simplification of the embedding of internal links ("Inline Link Dialog"), integration of logos into the theme, elimination of minor security gaps|
|Older version; still supported: 4.6||Pepper||16th August 2016||Innovations: theme and plug-in updates without changing pages ("Shiny Updates"), automatic detection of dead links , storage of drafts in the browser cache, use of fonts installed in the user's operating system in the backend (native fonts)|
|Older version; still supported: 4.7||Vaughan||December 6, 2016||Innovations: new standard theme Twenty Seventeen , user-specific language in the backend, developers can implement specific collective actions more easily|
|Older version; still supported: 4.8||Evans||June 8, 2017||New features: media widgets and improvements in link editing in the editor|
|Older version; still supported: 4.9||Tipton||16th November 2017||Innovations: Customizer with planning function, simplified menu creation and sandbox for security when editing plug-ins or themes (fatal error almost impossible because the previous version is restored instead of the white screen)|
|WordPress 5||Older version; still supported: 5.0||Bebo||December 6, 2018||Innovations: an editor based on content blocks, Theme Twenty Nineteen|
|Older version; still supported: 5.1||Betty||February 21, 2019||Innovations: performance improvements of the editor, site health function for improved security and speed.|
|Older version; still supported: 5.2||Jaco||May 7, 2019||Innovations: Site Health Check to display the website status, recovery mode for fatal errors in PHP|
|Older version; still supported: 5.3||Kirk||November 12, 2019||Innovations: Improved user interactions and a more user-friendly user interface.|
|Current version: 5.4||Adderley||March 31, 2020||Innovations: new functions and bug fixes in the block editor|
|Current version: 5.5||Eckstine||August 11, 2020||Innovations: speed (lazy loading), search engines (XML sitemap) and security (automatic updates for plugins and themes)|
The project WordPress μ (μ = mu, here as an abbreviation for multi-user use) was created in order to offer the possibility, weblogs client capable to host and establish service weblog one. WordPress µ versions were based on the current WordPress version and mostly appeared shortly after it. The project was also coordinated by Automattic.
Since WordPress 3.0, µ has been an integral part of the blog software under the name Multisite . It is therefore no longer managed as a separate project.
BuddyPress is a plug-in for WordPress (originally only for WordPress µ) that transforms the blog system into a small social network . The current version is 4.3.0 from April 25, 2019.
WordPress for mobile devices
For operating systems of various mobile devices (currently iOS , Android , Windows Phone , Blackberry OS , Symbian , HP webOS ), applications are offered that enable mobile access to WordPress.com blogs and WordPress blogs from version 2.7. Among other things, these offer the possibility of editing contributions locally and uploading images and videos.
The integration of the "LinkLift" plug-in , which incorporated text links for the purpose of search engine optimization in the unofficial German version 2.3, sparked discussions among users. As a reaction to this, the plug-in was no longer supplied as of October 1, 2007.
For a long time there were also several language files for WordPress in German-speaking countries: one from WordPress.org and two from WordPress Germany (one “you” and one “you” version). Since the language files used the same country code, various problems arose with the introduction of the automatic update function with WordPress 2.7. This was resolved with the subsequent version 2.8 and the merging of the German language versions.
WordPress does not offer native support for multilingual websites. Although plug-ins offer the possibility of managing multilingual content, these mostly only relate to individual postings and not to all available elements. Alternatively, it is possible to use the multi-site function of WordPress from version 3.0 and thus create a separate blog for each language.
In version 2.8 the memory consumption has increased significantly compared to the previous versions, especially on 64-bit systems. Experience has shown that at least 128 MB RAM are required as standard today.
With version 3.2, the amount of code has been reduced and performance has been worked on.
Programming interface (API)
Especially when developing skins ( called themes in WordPress ), developers complain about the inconsistent API . There are redundant or almost identical functions . Global variables are used and object-oriented programming is mixed with procedural programming. In addition, some functions output values directly on the screen, others just return them.
With version 5.0 of WordPress a new editor called Gutenberg arrived, which was criticized by many members of the community. The "Block Editor" Gutenberg replaces the editor TinyMCE, which was previously used by WordPress, which causes problems with themes and plug-ins (here in particular PageBuilder) as long as these have not yet been adapted to the new basis. The WordPress Foundation's publication and information policy was also criticized, as the publication of WordPress 5.0 was postponed several times and there was hardly any more detailed information about Gutenberg until the release. This has now changed due to (unofficial) projects. TinyMCE will remain available as the “Classic Editor” plugin until at least 2022. Once it is installed and activated, it completely replaces the new Block Editor and restores the old user interface for editing posts and pages. When switching between the two editors, however, make sure that Gutenberg is not fully downward compatible with the Classic Editor. So you should choose one of the two editors when working with a WordPress installation.
From version 3.0 WordPress exchanges in titles, content and commentary spelling WordPress automatically by the official - WordPress - out.
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