Demolished church building in Eisenach
In the history of the city of Eisenach there were numerous church buildings that have been demolished today . These include monasteries, churches, chapels and hospitals.
( Eisenach city wall adjoining it to the north , today's Schillerstraße to the intersection of Sommerstraße and the eastern Karlsplatz with the Nikolaikirche. Today this area is built over by the deaconess mother house and parts of the St. Georg Clinic.) The Nikolaikloster in Eisenach was located in the east of today's old town, in the area between the Nikolaitor, the
History Landgrave Ludwig III
entrusted the construction of the Nikolaikloster at the beginning of the 12th century . his aunt Adelheid of Thuringia . She was the daughter of Landgrave Ludwig I , who lived as a Benedictine nun in the Drübeck Monastery near Wernigerode and was thus able to become the first abbess of the Eisenach monastery.
The Nikolaikirche was originally just a simple Romanesque merchant church. Associated with the founding of the monastery was a representative reconstruction of this church, in which, as can be proven from architectural details, experts from the landgrave's building works were also involved. In the period that followed, the Nikolaikloster became a preferred site as a widow's residence; in addition to its pastoral and cultural significance for the city, it also served to educate and care for the (female) aristocratic upper class. In addition to the Nikolaikirche and the bell tower, the monastery buildings also included the provost's office, the long house - the nuns' living area, the ossuary , various storage and farm buildings, including two bulk floors (grain storage areas).
Outside the city there were farms in numerous surrounding communities that provided the monastery with their income. In 1529 all churches, monasteries and chapels in which no Protestant worship was held were closed, the buildings were sold to private individuals or were used for other purposes. In 1557 the monastery still had seven nuns. During a review and description of the buildings (to determine the value), a sketch was made that is considered the oldest surviving image of the monastery. In the major fire of 1636, the Nikolaikloster was also badly affected. In the 18th century, the nave served as a manufacturing building for a wool combing factory, the forerunner of the Eichel textile factories; most of the outbuildings were removed during this time.
In the 19th century, the Deaconess Movement in Eisenach received the property to build the Eisenach Deaconess Mother House.
() The former Katharinenkloster was located at the western end of Katharinenstrasse, at the beginning of Frankfurterstrasse and Kasseler Strasse. The convenient location at the intersection of the western arteries may have been decisive for the choice of location. From this point, a very short and comfortable access to the Wartburg was possible via the Zeisiggrund.
The settlement on the Ehrensteig (Stiegk) had a special relationship to the Wartburg for centuries, it was a kind of business and supply yard of the castle.
1214 is passed down as the year of the (final) church consecration, when the Landgrafenhof was present. As early as 1208, Pope Innocent III. The abbot of the Pforta monastery near Naumburg (Saale) was given the spiritual supervision of the abbess and nuns of the Katharinenkloster in Eisenach, which is still under construction.
At the instigation of the landgrave, the monastery passed to the Cistercian order. Chroniclers describe the monastery as a handsome complex with a stately church, still built in the late Romanesque style and consecrated to St. Katharina, and a chapel of St. Johannis. The monastery gave domicile mainly to noble and distinguished ladies from the Thuringian region; among them members of the families von Weingarten, von Farnrode, von Seebach, von Hopfgarten and von Goldacker are attested. The young Brabant duchess Imagina von Loon, a niece of the landgrave, who supported the construction work on the monastery as much as possible, is known to be the first abbess. Well-known princely personalities chose the Katharinenkloster as burial place, among them Landgrave Hermann I and his wife Sophia, the Landgraves Heinrich Raspe and Friedrich der Freidige .
The monastery was wealthy and owned numerous properties in Thuringia. Carl Wilhelm Schumacher (1777) says: "It (the monastery) was in front of the Georgenthore on the so-called Ehrensteige, where the road turns to Hesse, and took up all of the space ...". It was later used as a grain floor the name of the old granary that has been known for a long time.
The Reformation and the Peasants' War also brought this monastery to an end. As early as 1552, the princely coffins were first transferred to Grimmenstein Castle near Gotha and in 1615 to Reinhardsbrunn . The monastery buildings were converted: under Duke Johann Ernst , to whom the Eisenach part of the country fell in 1596, as an armory, under Johann Georg I as a granary, and under his successor as the "Comedy House".
Franciscan Monastery of St. Paul
( Franciscan monastery was located on a site that today includes the (upper) market school on Pfarrberg and south of the esplanade to the edge of the southern city wall with the bell tower and a hotel complex east of the school.) The first Eisenach
Around the year 1224 Landgravine Elisabeth founded the first Franciscan monastery in Eisenach. Probably at their instigation, the Franciscans ("ordo fratrum minorum", order of the Friars Minor , a Discalceaten - (barefoot) order and mendicant order ) were given a still undeveloped hillside property to the south, immediately above the landgrave's stone courtyard. Originally it should have been just a small building made of wood, which the religious erected next to the Franciscan Church, which was already made of stone. Wooden buildings were still the rule in what was then Eisenach. The first Franciscans from Erfurt came to the Eisenach monastery as early as 1225, and some relics are said to have been given to the monastery. It belonged to the Teutonia Order and from 1230, after the province was divided, to the Saxon Franciscan Province ( Saxonia ). Late Romanesque barrel vaults of the former monastery buildings and some tombstones that were found are the few visible witnesses of the late medieval monastery today. The Eisenach monastery was consecrated to Saint Paul, which is why it is also known as the “Paulan monastery”.
The cemetery in the rear part of the monastery grounds was shared with the neighboring parish church of St. Georg. The Franciscans only stayed in Eisenach until 1525. In the course of the “Pfaffensturm” in the course of the Reformation , there were numerous riots in the city area and monasteries and churches were looted. The George Church was so badly damaged that the now evangelical church service had to be held in the Franciscan monastery church. The adjoining monastery buildings and the extensive property were already secularized. Extensive demolition work was associated with the annexation of the monastery grounds to the neighboring ducal residence. At the same time, a princely pleasure garden called " Charlottenburg " was created in the heavily sloping area - some of it still located on the old cemetery grounds. At the instigation of the Duke of Eisenach, the construction of an unfinished garrison church began on the same site in 1732 . The street names Mönchstraße, Klosterstraße and Barfüßerstraße are still reminiscent of this monastery today.
During the construction work for the Charlotte School and other foundation work, the workers came across remains of the monastery. The Franciscan Church on the Pfarrberg could thus be partially reconstructed. It was a 57.6 meter long three-aisled Romanesque basilica with a crypt .
Franciscan Monastery of St. Elisabeth
An unofficial pilgrimage site known today as Elisabethplan is reminiscent of a Franciscan monastery here in the late Middle Ages and is intended as a memorial for Saint Elisabeth , Landgravine of Thuringia.
( donkey station to the Wartburg , barely two hundred meters from the castle gate, directly above the access road. The monastery complex was located on the site of what is now known as the Elisabeth fountain and sunk into the rock of the castle hill, which was the closest source of drinking water.) On the footpath from the so-called
Around 1225 a small hospital was built below the Wartburg. Elisabeth donated and probably initially also directed. The sick and needy were cared for here. The exact number, location and size of the buildings are unknown. Wooden log houses and a small chapel are to be assumed. The Elisabeth Fountain, which still exists today, was probably built before the hospital time. When the fighting for possession of the Wartburg broke out in the Thuringian-Hessian War of Succession , the hospital close to the castle was located between the fronts (see Eisenacher Burg ) and was probably destroyed or temporarily abandoned.
About 100 years after the expulsion and death of St. Elisabeth (1231) built a small Franciscan monastery on the site of her hospital , which, according to legend , was donated by Landgrave Friedrich the Serious . The buildings of this second monastery in the Eisenach area were built after extensive leveling work on two sloping terraces.They consisted of the monastery church, the cells of the brothers, storage and farm buildings - now mostly stone buildings, everything was surrounded by a protective wall. In 1441 the access was relocated, whereby a rock section had to be removed. A monastery chronicle from the middle of the 15th century has been preserved, which contains many references to monastery life.
The Franciscan Brothers left the monastery in 1525; from then on it was used as a quarry .
During excavation and leveling work on the instigation of the Wartburg architect Hugo von Ritgen in the area around the Elisabethbrunnen, workers came across massive foundations of former buildings in 1851, but no research was carried out. Burgwart Hermann Nebe examined the site from 1924 to 25 when a small rose garden was laid out again and the remains of the wall and small finds were uncovered.
The area, which is extremely interesting for the history of the country, was already designated as a ground monument in the GDR and examined by the Museum of Prehistory and Early History Weimar and the Wartburg Museum. In the years 1957 to 1960, 1964 and 2006 excavation campaigns took place with the aim of analyzing the structural development history of the monastery and the remaining building structures. Several construction phases and numerous details of the system became known.
A first wooden cross was installed on the upper terrace as early as 1931, which has since been renewed several times, and an Elisabeth sculpture was erected in 1991 as a place of pilgrimage and memorial. In the Elizabeth year 2007, several memorial services were held in memory of the saint on the square.
The facility, built by the Franciscans, was built on a hillside and consisted of a monastery church with attached monastery cells, some storage and utility rooms and a "brewery". The Elisabeth fountain was also located in the monastery grounds. The whole complex was laid out in terraces and secured by a protective wall.
As far as possible, the uncovered foundation walls of the stone buildings were made visible by setting stones in the 1950s in order to illustrate the location and orientation of the original buildings.
The site, which is largely accessible, was secured by a set of stairs and a protective wall facing the street. In the vicinity of the monastery there was also a portrait of a saint or wayside shrine - remnants of which are now referred to as the "Welsbachstein".
The side valley known today as Johannistal reminds with its name of a former Eisenach St. John's monastery, which belonged to the order of the Cistercians and whose location can only be visited today as a ground monument.
() The monastery complex was apparently remote from the old town in a Kerbtal on the side of the Sengelsbach, now called Ludwigsklamm, between Paulinenhöhe and Sophienhöhe. This tiny valley, which is now partially wooded again, barely 200 m long and 20 to 80 m wide, was naturally protected by steep slopes and rocks. In addition to an artificially terraced area, there is also a pond fed by a source stream. Today you can easily reach this historic, but largely forgotten place via the hiking trail that leads from Kapellenstrasse to Ludwigsklamm.
The monastery goes back to the initiative of a monk known as "Brother Gerhard" - also "Atze". He asked Sophie von Brabant, who was present at the time in Eisenach or on the Wartburg, as the alleged regent, to be allowed to use the plot of land he had acquired as a building site for a monk's cell. For this purpose, a certificate issued at the Wartburg was deposited on September 4, 1252.
In his first document, sealed as a Thuringian Landgrave, Albrecht confirmed this fact in 1256, but for political reasons withheld in the explanation any reference to his former rival Sophie.
Since this cell was consecrated to St. John, the written records for this locality give the topographical information in Latin "vallis Johannis babtiste" (1256) and "vallis St. Johannis" (1294). In the absence of useful reference locations, the name Johannistal was finally used for most of the valley floor through which the Sengelsbach flows.
In another document that goes back to Landgrave Albrecht, the monastery cell receives a nearby hop hill for cultivation. At that time, St. Johannisthal was recognized as a branch of the Georgenthal Cistercian monastery .
Monastery life died out when the Eisenach Pfaffensturm - an anti-clerical revolt - broke out on April 24, 1525 and spread over numerous church properties and buildings. The monks fled or were chased away, the property was looted, and the land was later sold to interested parties.
With the planned expansion of the villa settlement in Eisenacher Südstadt at the beginning of the 20th century, the city limits now also reached this remote area, and the choice of names “Kapellenstrasse” and “Johannistal” was based on historical tradition.
The monastery complex was probably still used for agricultural purposes after the expulsion of the monks and possibly destroyed to the ground during the Thirty Years War. Today you can see a rectangular, leveled square surrounded by trees, at the edges of which there are still occasional broken mortar and brick and traces of masonry. Immediately below the open space there is a small former fish pond fed by stratified water sources and next to it the so-called "Schäfchenwiese", a popular resting place and watering place on the former Triftweg. The ponds found at the Waldschänke in Johannistal, which are mostly silted up today, and the vaulted bakers and flower beds that can be seen on the slope are said to go back to the monks.
( Kartausgarten ; In the Middle Ages, this place was at a fork in the road, about 500 meters from the Marientor on the bank of the Marienbach.) The Eisenach Carthusian Monastery was on the site of today's
As early as 1378, the Carthusian Order had acquired a property in Eisenach, on which the Elisabethenhaus monastery (domus vallis sanctae Elisabeth) was built in 1380 with the support of Landgraves Friedrich, Balthasar and Wilhelm , into which six brothers from the Erfurt Charterhouse moved. The church and the monks' cells were first built close to the stream, but when the snowmelt and flood (1379) they were badly damaged and had to be moved to the area of today's Kartausgarten.
The monks lived in solitary cells next to the church, absolute silence, the strictest enclosure and the hardest fasting were imposed on them. In addition to regular spiritual exercises, they devoted themselves to manual and scientific work. The Erfurt library bears testimony to their diligence in copying books. The scholar Johannes von Hagen (Latinized: Johannes Indaginis , 1415–1475) emerged from the Eisenach convent and was prior in Eisenach from 1454 to 1456, then in Erfurt, Frankfurt (Oder) and Grabow near Stettin . He has penned more than 500 works. His successor in the Eisenach priory, Heinrich Nemritz (1457–1474), played an important role in the order, especially 1477–1482 as the general visitator of the Low German order province.
The economic situation of the two Thuringian Carthusian monasteries was favorable, the Eisenach monastery owned large estates of forest, numerous fields, vineyards and fish ponds, and taxes were collected from more than 40 villages.
The buildings were damaged by the Eisenach "Pfaffensturm" in 1525, but were largely repaired in 1537, so bulk floors and storage rooms were also needed for a new sheep farm. The last Carthusian monks left Eisenach as early as 1525. The monastery was confiscated by the duke; At times there was a pleasure garden, a forerunner of today's landscape park. The penal and reformatory institution, which was operated in the same place in the 19th century, served completely different purposes. The last major redesign of the monastery site was with the construction of the foyer and the establishment of the extensive spa and landscape park at the beginning of the 20th century. Except for a few remains (garden house), the former monastery buildings were demolished.
During excavation work on the edge of the summer house, some graves were found in 1995; the dead were buried in an east-west direction.
( Petersberg , near the confluence of the Hörsel and Nesse rivers, there was already an important settlement called "Ysenach" before the city was founded, in which there was a church dedicated to Saint Peter.) On the western slope of the
According to historical sources, the settlement on Petersberg existed as a settlement until the 15th century. The street names Hellergasse and Altstadtstraße are reminiscent of these. The Peterskirche was therefore the oldest parish church in Eisenach. The Peterspratozinium already indicates an old age. During the construction work carried out in 1871 for the Petersberg brewery in Erbslöh and during the housing construction in the post-war years, graves and foundation walls of the Peterskirche were discovered and examined in several places.
Eisenach Cathedral - St. Mary's
() On the Frauenberg, directly above the Eisenacher Bachhaus.
Landgrave Albrecht sponsored a place of devotion to Mary in his city of Eisenach. He had the Erfurt Canon Monastery in mind with its magnificent cathedral, which is why he exchanged land in 1294. He transferred the patronage of the Margarethenkirche in Gotha to the knights of the Teutonic Order, who had a settlement and property around the Marien- or Frauenkirche in Eisenach since the middle of the 13th century . For the Frauenkirche he immediately appointed the dean and the chapter on Grand Burschla as patrons. The Landgrave made generous donations to his Augustinian Canons Beata Maria Virginis .
The cathedral must have been a magnificent sight. He was at the top of the Frauenplan, on the left when you go up. Broad stone stairs led up to the perhaps still Romanesque choir, which was flanked by two towers with portals. These towers were laid down again in 1306 for technical reasons.
A Corpus Christi chapel was added to the church.
The Frauenplan - actually the plan on the Frauenberge, because the Frauenberg is the height itself on which the cathedral stood - was free from houses downwards, whereas further up was the Stiftsbrauhaus (after the Reformation, a princely brewery until 1610) and a fountain, the the canons received as compensation for the demolished towers from the city. There were also bread banks here; the square was originally a marketplace.
Above to the right were the apartments of the canons, further to the left the school that Johannes Rothe directed for a while, to the left of the church the church house and the cemetery.
Now there is no longer any trace of the cathedral in place, and the steps that could still be seen at the end of the 17th century have now disappeared.
During excavation work on the Frauenplan in 1883, some skeletons were found that came from the former cemetery, which was temporarily on the Frauenplan. Archaeological excavations in the area of the upper Rittergasse and the Philosophenweg uncovered the remains of former buildings in 1995-96; the immediate location of the cathedral was not reached.
Michaelskirche (from Oberstedtfeld)
It is not known when the Oberstedtfeld settlement came into being. In 1016 it came to Hersfeld Monastery with the adjacent wilderness, then it belonged to the fiefdom of the Frankensteiners. Once again, 1330, one hears about the village of Oberstedtfeld in the sales letter to the Hennebergers. At the end of the 14th century the village fell into desolation. 1405 speaks of a Hufe Land, which "is located in front of Isenach in the feldin zue Obrinstetefelde and dorumme". Located in the vicinity of the city of Eisenach, the former population, as well as those of the neighboring villages of Ammern, Wegses and Ziegenberg, will have moved behind the protective walls, their fields and meadows of course remained in cultivation. Further notes and files tell of this: On December 3, 1518 Heinrich von Madelungen received the fiefdom of Oberstedtfeld from Wilhelm, Count zu Henneberg.
As the parish church of the villages of Amra and Oberstedtfeld, the church consecrated to Saint Michael was one of the oldest in the present-day urban area of Eisenach; it may have been built at the instigation of the Hersfeld monastery. The exchange contract of the Hersfeld Abbey on the patronage rights of the churches in Ober- and Niederstedtfeld to the Eisenach Sankt Marienstift was dated April 25, 1352 . The Margarethenkirche in Stedtfeld and the Michaelskirche were also formally transferred to the Eisenach Marienkirche in 1356. This contract was renewed in April 1427.
Building findings in the
early 1920s, during clearing work for a potato field, numerous human bones, shards of pottery and broken roof tiles were found. In the autumn of 1926 an investigation was carried out:
“The stones that were brought to light also showed what material had been used to build the church. First there were limestones, ... then red-lying and grievous stones, which can only come from the Georgental, and then sandstones such as those found on Moseberg. The sandstones were only found on the upper surface of the floor ... Among them was a profiled stone. It presented itself as the capital of a Romanesque column. ... Where the wall ended, i. H. where the ground had grown again, a complete framework was found at a depth of 1/2 meter, facing east to west. It could only have been on the outside of the church. The length of the wall was 11 meters, the wall thickness was one meter. With the discovery of this wall, the excavations were also exhausted. It was not possible to determine whether the wall was the eastern or western transverse side of the old church. Further excavations went without result. "
At present, the above Area part of a private garden.
() The Jakobskirche was located in the north-western part of the old town in the center of the Jakobsplan and is today a green area on the western Sophienstrasse, surrounded by trees.
A Jacob chapel or church was donated around 1190 by the Thuringian Landgrave Hermann I in the north-western part of today's old town.
The structure had four altars. These were consecrated to Saints Jacobus, Magdalena and Andreas, the three kings and Sigismund, John the Baptist, Antonius and Katharina.
A wall and linden trees surrounded the church. The church was to become the center of a craft district within the city, at the same time the first buildings were built along today's Sophienstrasse, Jakobs and the former Grüner Gasse, but the influx of craftsmen and other settlers quickly faltered, so that some parts of the old town were still around 1800 had remained undeveloped north of Sophienstrasse. These areas were used as gardens and meadows for the time being. The unrest of 1525 did not pass the Jakobskirche by either, after which it was not used for worship services.
After the Reformation, the income of the church and that of the parish churches were left to the city council, and the building itself served as a storage facility for the grinding mills in front of the needle gate. Here, the incoming grain was weighed under strict municipal control and distributed to the warehouses and bulk floors within the city, which is why the building is also referred to as the municipal flour scale in city accounts. The conversion to a princely brewery planned for 1607 did not take place. In the great conflagration of 1636, the Jacob's Church burned down and was not restored, its walls were gradually removed.
The (new) town flour scales were built on the remains of the walls in the early 18th century. When this also burned down in 1796, the square was completely cleared and provided with green spaces.
occasion of the redevelopment of the south side of the road and the Sophie Jakobgasse were carried out on the entire 1987-89 archaeological site investigations. Remnants of the late medieval development of the water and sewage supply and a developed handicraft production (including wood turner, weaver, dyer etc.) could be proven. During the excavation work on Jacob's plan at the end of July 1999, a piece of pavement was found at some depth - whether it was from the church cannot be said with certainty.
Chapels and hospitals
Chapel of St. Egidien
() The monk's cell, known as the Egidien Chapel, was located above what is now the Ilgengrund street in the south of the city. A hillside terrace that exists there and is used by residents as a football field is regarded as the location of this building.
The Eisenach local history researcher Helmbold: “Saint Aegidius, one of the 14 helpers in need, was also called St. Ilgen; A small chapel, cell, or hermitage was consecrated to him here, and so the name of the ground is still a memory of the Aegidienklause, but also the only one. Little else is known about them either. It already existed when Landgrave Albrecht took over Thuringia; in 1291 he once again expressly protected them with their property and rights. Only a few brothers will have served the chapel. Until 1329 they were subordinate to the Cistercian convent of St. Katharinen; in that year the nuns ceded their rights to the abbot of Pforta. In 1421 the chapel still existed (Rothe: cluess sente Egiden). It will be gone with the Reformation. The cell of a brother Gerhard in Hellthal (Heiletal) is documented in 1218. "
"Also at the Egidienkapelle under the Eisenach castle, which Landgrave Albert calls a cella in 1291, there were some Cistercians who, according to the mentioned document [deed. in walking Arch. Zu Weimar] held regular services here and were subordinate to the Katharinenkloster. The abbess may have recognized this relationship as unsuitable and therefore gave the cella to the abbot of Pforta (1329) on the condition that if there was a vacancy, two brothers from Pforta would be sent here immediately. "
Around 1500 the chapel was mentioned again in connection with the establishment of a pilgrimage. The late Gothic monumental sculpture shown today in the St. Alban's Church in Diedorf - The Holy Grave - is said to have originally come from the Egidien Chapel in Eisenach (!) And was secretly transported from Eisenach in the turmoil of the iconoclasm.
St. John's Chapel
() The Johannisplatz located in Eisenach's old town and the Johannisstraße branching off from it both remind of a Gothic devotional chapel that was formerly located there, the location of which has been handed down on the site of today's Schwager department store.
A Franciscan chronicle shows that in 1322 a monk Friedrich arriving in Eisenach began to build a chapel in honor of St. John the Baptist within the boundaries of the parish of St. Nikolai in Eisenach over the little brook "Sceyzbach" (old name of the Löbersbach) . After this had happened, he had some clergy from the Order of the Cross-Bearers of St. John come over, who at that time held the spiritual lessons in a neighboring house until the chapel was opened, the arrival of which the clergy were very little pleased. But after a few days had passed, the aforementioned cross-bearers wanted to be informed and insured about the expense and receipt of food and clothing, they knew how to get plenty. Because their intention could not be achieved, they said goodbye and went back; After this had happened, the somewhat excited Lord instructed the Friars Minor (Franciscans) to bring all the stones for such a church, of which one knows the stone wall built up to the roll.
“It happened in 1331 year after the birth of Christ that Margrave Friedrich came to Eisenach with his wife Mechthild from Meißen at Easter, and then he had an inspiration of the Holy Spirit in the sense that they were in the St. John's Chapel, which in The parish of St. Nikolai was located on Löbersgasse, four barefoot brothers (Franciscans) wanted to give them alms, which they should use forever from interest and pensions for their souls and all their parents, and they should have mass every day there Hold times of day. There were two counts in their council, one from Schwarzburg and the other from Käfernburg, who advised him (but) that he should build a chapel under the Wartburg ... "
From the sources cited above, the approximate location of the chapel emerges: it was in the area of the parish of St. Nikolai - d. H. in the area of the eastern part of the walled old town of Eisenach as well as in the immediate vicinity of a stream - literally “above” the Sceyzbach, today's Löbersbach. The latent danger of flooding of the Löbersbach may have been the reason for the abandonment of the chapel, but the pressure exerted on the city lords by the church superiors is also possible - in the area of today's Johannisplatz the parish boundaries of the parishes of St. Nikolai (Karlsplatz), St. Georgen (market) and St. Marien (Frauenberg), another chapel was seen as competition.
Hospital and Chapel of St. Justus
() The St. Justus Hospital building stood between the former diaconate and the Kirchner apartment on Pfarrberg, a little above today's post office.
The Eisenacher Hospital St. Justus was also called "Heiligenhaus" and "Weibersiechen". It belonged to the neighboring Franciscan monastery and was initially just a devotional chapel adorned with many images of saints. To accommodate old and sick women within the city, the chapel was rededicated with additional additions to a hospital and infirmary. The hospital had a draw well in the street in front of the house and a large garden, which was used by the beneficiaries. The costs for the placement in the infirmary were covered by donations and taxes. The hospital was allowed to use the cemetery of the neighboring Franciscan monastery. After the Reformation, the Franciscan monastery was given up, but the hospital existed until 1883. In that year it was moved together with the St. Spiritus Hospital to the so-called “Eichelsche Foundation” in the newly built Spital an der Fischerstadt (Hospitalstrasse). The town bought the dilapidated house and pulled it down in 1885.
St. Clemens Hospital and Chapel (Old Hospital)
( Clemens Chapel , which belonged to this hospital , until Langensalzaer Strasse was built.) The original hospital facility is believed to be at the western end of the Katharinenkirche on a hill near the village of Stieg. The relocated hospital was located next to the
According to the chronicler Rothe, Landgrave Hermann I (1190–1217) is said to have relocated the nearby old hospital in front of the Nikolaitor "to the Steinweg" when the Katharinenkloster was founded in 1214. Since the infirmary was originally built “quite a distance from the city”, Storch concludes that it was built around the time of the Crusades. It is attested as a leper house on "Steinweg" for the year 1295. For the year 1713, Schumacher describes the St. Clemens Hospital as so dilapidated that a major "repair" was necessary. Subsequently, citizens of both sexes were given domicile and food here. Soon after 1815 only men were accepted. The number of "beneficiaries" has been set at 10 people, with a householder and a maid. In 1885 all inmates of St. Clemens are relocated - but only for a short time to the St. Spiritus Hospital, which has just become vacant. A men's ward was set up by St. Annen in Clemensspital, as a drawing from 1889 shows. The new building from 1815, again renewed in 1886, which became necessary after the willful destruction in the wake of the war events of 1813, had to be removed in the course of the new railway lines and roads around 1904.
The small chapel belonging to the Clemensspital did not remain untouched by all these events. It was not always used for church services in accordance with its intended purpose, since in the 18th and 19th centuries it was mainly a woodshed for men to smoke. When the French withdrew through Eisenach in 1813, it suffered considerable damage, and it is thanks to the management of the St. Anne's Hospital and Privy Councilor Thon, the "Commisair of the Poor", that the chapel was repaired for worship. Similar to the sister church St. Spiritus, the Clement Chapel also had a small churchyard.
Hospital and Chapel St. Annen (New Hospital)
() The infirmary, known as the “Neues Spital”, was in the Middle Ages in the Fischerstadt, a suburb, immediately northwest of the Georgenthor of the Eisenach city fortifications. The hospital was adjacent to the St. Anne's Church. Today, all of the parcels in question are united and form the location of the “St. Annen-Stift ”with the St. Anne's Church located there.
The name St.-Annen-Spital was only given in the 18th century by the St.-Annen-Church. Before that it was simply called "The New Spital" - in contrast to the "Old Spital", the remains of which were probably still in the 15th Century near the Katharinenkloster on the outskirts of the suburb there.
The St. Anne's Chapel, founded by St. Elisabeth, had three altars in 1506. The Eisenach chronicler Johannes Rothe reports that a Vorwerk of the Eisenach council family Hellgreve had previously existed on the site of the New Hospital. As early as 1309, the New Hospital was wealthy. During the first Eisenach town fire in 1343, it burned out, but was immediately replaced. The chapel was used by the Spittelle people and also by the neighbors after the Reformation . During the Thirty Years War the church was renewed and expanded. Duke Ernst August designated the Annenkapelle as a garrison church in 1743 and had it newly furnished with two galleries. After they had been used for war purposes during the wars of liberation, the building was renewed several times, namely in 1875. The buildings of the Annenspital which were still in the courtyard were demolished.
In 1883 the Eisenach city administration decided to build a modern retirement and nursing home. For this purpose, a neighboring building site on today's Hospitalstrasse was determined. The St. Justus and St. Spiritus hospitals, which were previously at different locations in the city, were relocated to this new building. A men's ward from St. Annen was also housed in the Clemensspital.
Hospital and Chapel of St. Spiritus
() The listed half-timbered house at the southwest end of the Ehrensteig and Frankfurter Straße is the former hospital building.
The medieval towns countered the latent danger of epidemics and epidemics by building hospitals and special hospitals. The latter were on the arteries, but as far away from the city as possible. In contrast to the plague , leprosy meant years of agonizing death. The sick people were outcasts for the rest of their lives. The Heiliggeist chapels (St. Spiritus) were created to enable this group of people to participate in Christian life in a regulated manner.
So far nothing is known about the time when the Eisenach Hospital St. Spiritus was built. It is assumed that like the Clemensspittel it was very old and intended for lepers. Then poor people took it on. In 1425 the "good people at the spruce" received an annual donation of one guilder. “Before the Fichten” was the name of the area on the Ehrensteig; the mountain above the hospital is still called Siechenberg today. In 1506 the hospital appeared under the name Ad Sanctum Spiritum extra portam Sancti Jeorii (near St. Spiritus in front of Georgenthor), later it is also called Weibersiechen or Holy Spirit . Like St. Clemens, it was connected to a small chapel where in 1643 preaching was done once a week.
The chapel became so dilapidated that it collapsed in 1720. It was not rebuilt, but instead the hospital building was renewed, as most of it still stands today. The inmates used to be buried in the small cemetery in front of the house. When the women moved into the new building in the fishing town, the inmates of St. Clemens moved here.
- Lehfeld, Voss: City of Eisenach - demolished churches, monasteries, etc. other religious buildings - Johannisthal monastery and Egidienklause . In: Architectural and art monuments. District court districts Gerstungen and Eisenach . 1915, p. 303-304 .
- Helmut Scherf: Disappeared monasteries, churches and chapels in and around Eisenach . In: MFB Verlagsgesellschaft Eisenach (ed.): StadtZeit. City journal with information from the Wartburg district . August issue. Druck- und Verlagshaus Frisch, Eisenach 1994, p. 30-40 .
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . tape II . Printed by the Fuldaer Aktiendruckerei, Fulda 1905, The St. Nicholas Monastery of the Benedictine Sisters, p. 2-16 .
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . tape II , 1905, The St. Catherine's Monastery of the Cistercians, p. 17-34 .
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . tape II , 1905, The Franciscan Monastery in the City, p. 69-81 .
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . tape II , 1905, The Franciscan Monastery under the Wartburg, p. 82-92 .
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . tape II , 1905, The Cistercian Monastery St. Johannistal, p. 115-123 .
- Heinrich Weigel walks around Eisenach . In: Eisenacher Schriften zur Heimatkunde, Heft 7, Eisenach, 1979, p. 55.
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . 1905, The Carthusian Monastery, p. 128-164 .
- Joseph Kremer: Contributions to the history of the monastic settlements of Eisenach in the Middle Ages . In: Sources and treatises on the history of the Diocese of Fulda . tape II , 1905, The Augustinian Canons B. Maria Virginis, p. 34-69 .
- Rarely in Central Germany. Holy grave in Diedorf is 500 years old. In: St. Benno book and magazine publishing company - online magazine. Retrieved May 5, 2009 .