Cizre with the Tigris in the foreground and the Cudi mountain range in the background
|Province (il) :||Şırnak|
|Residents :||121,073 (2018)|
|Telephone code :||(+90) 486|
|Postal code :||73 200|
|License plate :||73|
|Structure and administration (as of 2019)|
|Structure :||10 malls|
|Mayor :||Mehmet Ziriğ ( HDP )|
|Residents :||143,124 (2018)|
|Population density :||322 inhabitants per km²|
|Kaymakam :||Ahmet Adanur|
Cizre ([ dʒizˈɾe ], Kurdish Cizîr , also Cizîra Botan ; Arabic جزيرة ابن عمر, DMG Jazīrat Ibn ʿUmar ; Aramaic ܓܙܝܼܪܵܐ Gziro ) is a Turkish city and district in the province of Şırnak in southeastern Anatolia . The city unites around 85% of the district's population, who are predominantly of Kurdish descent.
The city of Cizre is 45 km from the provincial capital Şırnak on the Turkish-Syrian border on the Tigris River . Immediately north of the city, the Cizre dam of the Tigris was built. Cizre marks the point at which the Tigris is furthest from the Euphrates . The Tigris is navigable from Cizre, which gave the city its importance as a port. In Cizre, the most important long-distance road (long-distance bus service) into the southeast of Turkey ends with the border crossing into the extreme northeastern tip of Syria and the nearby border crossing ( Silopi ) into northwestern Iraq (tri-border region).
East of the city is the Cudi Dağı (2,114 m), on which, according to Islamic tradition, Noah and his Noah's Ark were stranded. The city lies at the northern end of the Jazīra plain . More than twice as many people live in Cizre as in the provincial capital Şırnak .
The ancient Aramaic name of the city was Gazarta d 'Kardū . It was called Gazarta under the Persians . The fortress of Bāzabdā, known from the campaigns of Shapur II , is equated with Cizre or Eski Hendek . The Abbasids renamed the city Djasirat-ibn ʿUmar after its governor Omar . Under the Kurdish princes the city was called Cizîra Botan . The Aq Qoyunlu called them Ceziretuşşeref (Honorable Cizre). The Ottoman name of the city was Cezire-i İbn-i Ömer. After Turkey was founded in 1923, the name was shortened to today's Cizre.
Cizre is derived from the Arabic word Jazira ( Arabic جزيرة 'Island'), as here the Tigris washes around the city like an island during high water.
The city's population decreased with its importance from the 19th to the 20th centuries. In 1890 it was 9,560 and dropped to 5,575 by 1940. In 1960 it rose to 6,473, in 2000 it was 69,591 and is now over 100,000 inhabitants. The district is the largest in the province and, in addition to the district town with the mayor's office ( Belediye ), consists of 31 villages ( Köy ), seven of which have over 1,000 inhabitants: Güçlü (1,030), Çavuş (1,143), Korucu (1,275), Düzova (1,229), Bozalan (1,666), Katran (1,871) and Dirsekli (3,251 pop .). The average population per village is 711. The majority of the population are Kurds . In the past there were also Arab and Aramaic residents.
Cizre was possibly the center of the Iron Age kingdom of Kumme . In the 10th century the city, together with Mosul , was the center of the ʿUquail. The city is equated with the place Bāzabdā. There Alexander the Great crossed the Tigris on his way against the Persians. In the Middle Ages, Cizre belonged to various empires such as the Marwanids , the Zengids and Ayyubids . From the 16th century, Cizre was part of the Ottoman Empire .
From the 15th to the 19th century, the city was the seat of the Kurdish principality of Botan , which was at times a vassal of various empires. The Kurdish family of the Azizan ruled there, the last ruler of which was Bedirxan Beg .
In the course of a new escalation between the state and the PKK , curfews were imposed in some southeastern cities, including Cizre. According to media reports from January 2016, Cizre is now a ghost town in many districts, entire districts have been devastated and looked like the images of the embattled Syrian cities. Many people have fled.
On February 11, 2016, the Turkish government declared the military action against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in the southeast Anatolian city of Cizre to be over. The operation was "very successful," said Interior Minister Efkan Ala . The curfew in Cizre would remain in effect until further notice. On August 26, 2016, there was a terrorist attack at a police checkpoint . According to the Minister for Economic Affairs, Nihat Zeybekci , at least eleven police officers were killed and 78 others injured in the attack. The banned Kurdish Workers' Party PKK claimed responsibility for the car bomb attack.
The climate is warm-temperate with dry summers, which can be particularly hot in this area ( effective climate classification : “Csa”) Cizre currently holds 48.6 ° C, the record for the highest temperature measured in Turkey
|Cizre (Sirnak region)|
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Cizre (Sirnak region)
Source: Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü, data: 1950–2015
In the 2014 municipal elections , Leyla Îmret ( BDP ), a 26-year-old hairdresser from Bremen, was elected mayor. She received 81.6 percent of the vote. Imret was born in Cizre and grew up in Germany since she was seven. In 2013 she returned to her place of birth. On September 11, 2015, she was removed from office by the Turkish Interior Minister Selami Altınok for allegedly “terrorist propaganda” and “inciting rebellion”. İmret was arrested once in 2015 and twice the following year, and then released. She later fled to Germany.
Noah's tomb is said to be in Cizre. There is also a Türbe in the cellar of the Abdaliye Medrese , which is attributed to the protagonists of the Kurdish national epic Mem û Zîn . The Great Mosque (Ulu Cami) is one of the most important mosques in Southeast Anatolia. It dates from the 13th century.
In Cizre there is the Cizrespor football club , which will play in the 3rd division during the 2018/2019 season starting in September 2018.
- Ibn al-Athīr (1160-1233), Arab historian
- Al-Jazari (12th / 13th centuries), Arab engineer, inventor and designer
- Melayê Cezîrî (1570–1640), Kurdish scholar
- Bedirxan Beg (1802–1868), Kurdish prince
- Şerafettin Elçi (1938–2012), Kurdish politician
- Tahir Elçi (1966–2015), Kurdish lawyer
- Leyla Îmret (* 1987), Kurdish local politician
- Lots of information about the city (Turkish)
- N. Elisséeff: Ḏjazīrat Ibn ʿUmar . In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition
- Türkiye Nüfusu İl ve İlçelere Göre Nüfus Bilgileri (Nufusune.com) , accessed on April 23, 2019
- Nigel Pollard: Soldiers, cities, and civilians in Roman Syria . University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 2000, p. 288
- MB Rowton: Urban Autonomy in a Nomadic Environment . In: Journal of Near Eastern Studies , 32/1/2, 1973, pp. 201-215
- Luisa Seeling: Entire cities in Turkey are restricted areas . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , December 20, 2015
- Gerd Höhler: Is Turkey threatened with civil war? In: handelsblatt.com . December 16, 2015, accessed February 11, 2016 .
- Turkey announces victory against PKK in Cizre . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: FAZ , February 11, 2016
- 11 dead, scores injured in blast at police HQ in south-east Turkey . In: ABC News . August 26, 2016 ( net.au [accessed July 29, 2018]).
- World Maps of Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Retrieved March 12, 2015 .
- Serhat Sensoy, Mesut Demircan, Yusuf Ulupınar: Climate of Turkey. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Turkish State Meteorological Service (Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü), archived from the original on February 13, 2015 ; accessed on March 12, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Climate information for the Sirnak region. Turkish State Weather Service (Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü), accessed March 12, 2015 .
- Frank Nordhausen: Turkey: Hairdresser from Bremen becomes mayor. In: fr-online.de. April 8, 2014, accessed December 18, 2014 .
- Leyla İmret: The Kurdish mayor from Bremen and the "civil war" of Cizre .
- A. Beril Tuğrul: A Radiographic Study of the Door of the Great Mosque (Ulucami) at Cizre . In: Journal of Near Eastern Studies , 55/33, 1996, pp. 187-194
- Cizrespor. Retrieved July 29, 2018 .