In Hellenistic , Roman and Byzantine times, Galatia referred to a landscape in Central Anatolia inhabited by the Celtic Galatians, with the centers Gordion and Ankyra (today's Ankara ). Until well into the 2nd century AD, the area was divided into the territories of the three great tribes of the Tolistobogier (also Tolistoagier), Trokmer and Tektosages , who each had a main town with Pessinus in the west, Tavium in the east and Ankyra in the center again divided into four subgroups.
The Kingdom of Galatia
With the march to Italy and Greece of the Celtic chief Brennus (4th century BC) many different Celtic peoples came to the Mediterranean area, where they dispersed after his death. While some moved back north, others formed associations and began to devastate from 281 BC. Northern Greece, Thrace and Macedonia . Parts of these Celtic associations founded the Kingdom of Tylis in eastern Thrace and were taken over by the Bithynian ruler Nicomedes I in 278 BC. BC called to help against his brother Zipoites. After the victory over Zipoites, the three tribes of the Tolistoagians, Trokmer and Tectosages advanced further into the interior of Asia Minor , where they, defeated by Antiochus I in the so-called Elephant Battle (268 BC), settled and founded the Kingdom of Galatia. in which city culture gradually established itself.
However, the Galatians allowed themselves to be recruited as mercenaries by the Seleucids (especially Antiochus III ) and the Ptolemies and repeatedly undertook raids against the coastal cities in the west, from which they extorted money. This led on the one hand to the introduction of the so-called "Galatian Tax", on the other hand to the intervention of Rome and Pergamon : Around 230 BC At first Attalus I succeeded in defeating the Galatians twice; 184 BC Chr. Won Eumenes II. Even supremacy over Galatia (165 v. Chr.), After it already 189 v. BC by the Roman consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso had been invaded and lastingly weakened.
List of the kings of Galatia
The Roman province of Galatia
In the year 25 BC After King Amyntas had fallen in Pisidia , Galatia passed into Roman possession in a will and was made an imperial province (with the capital Ankyra) by Augustus . Until the reorganization of the Roman provinces under Diocletian (around 300), the province of Galatia included not only the actual Galatia (i.e. the residential area of the Galatians), but also the neighboring areas of Paphlagonia , Lycaonia , Kilikia Tracheia and Pisidia (see illustration on the right). In addition, it was united several times with Cappadocia (and separated from it again) before it was reduced in size from the 2nd century onwards and finally divided into the two areas of Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda . Both provinces later belonged to the Dioecesis Pontica and were briefly reunited during the reign of Justinian I until they were finally incorporated into the theme of Anatolia in the late 7th century .
- Ralf Behrwald : Lycaonia (Galatia). In: Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity . Volume 23, Hiersemann, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-7772-1013-1 , Sp. 763-798
- Ludwig Bürchner : Galatia 1 . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume VII, 1, Stuttgart 1910, Col. 519-534 (outdated).
- Elmar Schwertheim: Asia Minor in Antiquity: From the Hittites to Constantine . Munich 2011, p. 75