|Molecular formula||C 18 H 21 NO 3|
|External identifiers / databases|
|Mechanism of action|
|Molar mass||299.36 g · mol -1|
|As far as possible and customary, SI units are used. Unless otherwise noted, the data given apply to standard conditions .|
Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone is an opioid that is structurally related to codeine and, like this, belongs to the derivatives of morphine . As a single preparation (such as Dicodid ) it acts as an analgesic (pain reliever) and as an antitussive (cough suppressant). In the US, the drug is mainly sold in combination preparations with paracetamol (such as Vicodin ) or ibuprofen .
Hydrocodone or dihydrocodeinone (not to be confused with dihydrocodeine ) is chemically related to codeine and has a stronger (approximately 2 to 8-fold) antitussive effect than codeine. Antitussive effectiveness is already achieved when there is practically no respiratory depression. In this concentration, hydrocodone has a weak analgesic effect and is not euphoric. The literature contains divergent data on analgesic potency , which are 15% or 59% of the analgesic potency of morphine (according to other sources, the analgesic potency is 100% that of morphine). However, an analgesic effect lasting four to eight hours is possibly not only caused by hydrocodone itself, but also by its metabolite hydromorphone, which is formed by O-demethylation .
The inhibition of the cough reflex is based not only on a central inhibition in the medulla oblongata , but probably also on a blockage of sensitive receptors ("cough receptors") in the bronchial tract. The active ingredient can be addictive (“may be habit-forming”).
The side effects of hydrocodone include:
- Respiratory depression (decreased central nervous drive to breathe)
- increased tiredness
- altered libido
- Dry mouth
- Impaired consciousness
- epileptic seizures
- allergic reaction
- Dizzy spells
- Analgesic (pain reliever)
- Antitussive (cough suppressant)
In Germany, hydrocodone is subject to the Narcotics Act and the Narcotics Prescription Ordinance , in the United Kingdom to the Misuse of Drugs Act, in which it is classified in class A (highest level of danger). In Switzerland it is subject to the federal law on narcotics and psychotropic substances .
- Entry on hydrocodone in the ChemIDplus database of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) .
- Entry on hydrocodone. In: Römpp Online . Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed on June 1, 2014.
- Data sheet Hydrocodone (+) - bitartrate salt from Sigma-Aldrich , accessed on April 4, 2011 ( PDF ).
- ABDA active ingredient dossier : Hydrocodone , retrieved from dimdi.de
- information Hydrocodone Streuli 5 mg / 10 mg , as of September 2012.
- Mellar P. Davis: Opioids in Cancer Pain. OUP Oxford, 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-923664-0 ( limited preview in Google book search), p. 89 ff.
- Eberhard Klaschik : Pain therapy and symptom control in palliative medicine. In: Stein Husebø , Eberhard Klaschik (ed.): Palliative medicine. 5th edition, Springer, Heidelberg 2009, ISBN 3-642-01548-4 , pp. 207-313, here: p. 233.
- Eberhard Klaschik : Pain therapy and symptom control in palliative medicine. 2009, p. 233.
- Vicodin , drugs.com, accessed June 3, 2013.
- Joyce Davidson, Throstur Bjorgvinsson: Current and potential pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs . tape 12 , no. 6 , June 2003, p. 993-1001 , doi : 10.1517 / 135437188.8.131.523 , PMID 12783603 .
- Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: Schedule 2: Controlled Drugs, Part I: Class A Drugs , accessed June 3, 2013.
- Quoted from the Swiss Medicines Compendium .