Reading and spelling disorder

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Classification according to ICD-10
F81.0 Reading and spelling disorder
F81.1 isolated spelling disorder
F81.3 combined disorder of school skills
ICD-10 online (WHO version 2019)

The reading and spelling disorder ( LRS for short ) describes the massive and long-lasting disorder of the acquisition of the written language ( written language ). Synonyms for this disorder are dyslexia (from Latin casual 'read' and ancient Greek ἀσθένεια asthéneia , German 'weakness' , i.e. ' reading weakness') reading and spelling disorder, reading and spelling weakness and reading and spelling difficulties.

People with reading and spelling disorders have problems translating spoken language into written language (and vice versa). A genetic predisposition, problems with auditory and visual perception processing, language processing and, above all, phonological awareness are assumed to be the cause . Dyslexia occurs isolated and expected to unconstitutional: that is, the written language problems arise without it for them without a thorough examination by a neurologist , a plausible explanation is (as general intellectual deficit or inadequate schooling).

The Federal Association of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia assumes that 4 percent of students in Germany are affected by dyslexia. With early detection, the problems can in many cases be compensated for; but the later a therapy starts, the lower the achievable effects are as a rule. A study by the University Clinic in Munich, according to which 4% of all German young adults only achieved an average spelling level of fourth graders, shows that such hopes are only partially justified in practice.

Appearance from a medical point of view

Appearance of dyslexia according to ICD-10

According to ICD-10 , the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems by the World Health Organization WHO , the reading and spelling disorder is a "disease". The WHO distinguishes between

  • Reading and spelling disorders (F81.0)
  • isolated spelling disorder (F81.1),
  • Arithmetic disorder (F81.2) and
  • a combined disorder of school skills (F81.3; impairment of reading, writing and arithmetic).

Recent research indicates that reading disorder can also occur in isolation and that it differs from isolated spelling disorder, as the disorder images are associated with different problems in working memory, a part of the brain. The disturbances can also occur in combination, but are therefore not related. In contrast to the ICD-10, the DSM-5 has separate categories for reading, writing, mathematical skills and all combinations of these learning disorders.

At the beginning of the written language acquisition you may have problems reciting the alphabet, naming letters or making rhymes. Reading problems later appear, which can take the following forms:

  • Leaving out, twisting or adding words or parts of words
  • low reading speed
  • Replace letters, syllables, and words
  • Difficulties starting with reading aloud , long hesitation or losing a line in the text
  • Swap words in the sentence or letters in words
  • Difficulty with double sounds

Problems in reading comprehension can also arise, which manifest themselves as follows:

  • Inability to reproduce what has been read, to draw conclusions from what has been read or to see connections
  • Use common knowledge instead of text information when answering questions

These reading and spelling errors are not just typical of children with a reading and spelling disorder. All children who learn to read and write initially make the same mistakes to varying degrees. For most children, however, the problems subside very quickly and eventually largely go away. Children with dyslexia make the mistakes far more often, and the problems remain stable over a long period of time. It is particularly noticeable that the errors hardly show constancy: It is neither possible to determine stable error profiles, nor is there a specific system of errors. The same word is misspelled differently over and over again.

Even if dyslexia cannot be diagnosed on the basis of the error types, from a therapeutic point of view it has proven helpful to subdivide the errors into the following error types:

  • Phoneme errors as violations of the phonetic spelling (violations of the letter-sound allocation rules, problems with word structuring: omissions, rotations, additions)
  • Rules errors as violations of the regular deviations from the spelling according to the sound (derivation errors, upper / lower case errors)
  • Memory errors or memory errors as violations of the regular deviations
  • Residual errors

Alternative points of view

From the point of view of doctors, reading and spelling weaknesses appear to be an illness and / or (in Germany) a disability within the meaning of Section 2 of Book IX of the Social Code . The neurologist Gerd Schulte-Körne regretted in an article published in Deutsches Ärzteblatt in 2003 that the German health insurance companies did not feel responsible for the "disease" of dyslexia.

The view that reading and spelling weaknesses are a disability is partly confirmed and partly questioned by German courts. The administrative court of Kassel ruled in its decision of March 23, 2006: “The dyslexia, which has been confirmed by a specialist medical report, is a disability i. S. d. Article 3, Paragraph 3, Sentence 2 of the Basic Law, which must be taken into account in school law. ” In its decision of February 10, 2012, however, the Hanover Administrative Court found:“ School partial performance disorders (here: reading and spelling weaknesses - LRS) represent If taken, there is no mental disturbance within the meaning of Section 35a of Book VIII of the Social Code . ”A claim to integration assistance only exists if a partial weakness in performance has led to“ secondary neurotization ”.

Wolfram Meyerhöfer advocates the thesis that “it is not the children's head [...] that is the problem”. The categories of dyslexia and dyscalculia, according to the Legakids Foundation, which is recognized as a non-profit and which spreads Meyerhöfer's view, are not used "to understand the associated learning phenomena, but to deal with issues of resource allocation." A medical certificate is a prerequisite for granting the child compensation for disadvantages at school. ”The LegaKids Foundation warns against classifying dyslexics as“ sick ”or“ disabled ”, as official confirmation of this status would inappropriately stigmatize those affected . The foundation is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Family, Seniors, Women and Youth . In summary, the LegaKids Foundation states: "The medical diagnosis of 'dyslexia' is misleading and harms the interests of children."

root cause

A variety of causes can contribute to the development of reading and spelling disorders, with various factors usually acting together. Individual influences, such as a genetic disposition, do not necessarily lead to the development of a learning disorder , but can be compensated for by preventive measures in preschool age and intensive support throughout the entire school and training period.

The following causes are currently being discussed:

  1. Genetics : Since LRS often affects several family members in families, a genetic component has recently been increasingly discussed. Since the concordance for reading and spelling disorders in identical twins is 68%, in contrast to dizygotic twins, it is only 38%, a substantial genetic influence cannot be denied. One suspects a polygenetic cause related to chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 18 and especially 15. In 2006 a German-Swedish research team identified a gene on the 6th chromosome called DCDC2 ( GeneID 51473 ), which appears to be dyslexic is clearly correlated . It is believed that this gene plays a role in the development of the brain, particularly in the migration of nerve cells in the fetal brain. In addition, various other genes or gene variants are also being discussed as the cause of dyslexia, so that a monogenetic cause cannot currently be assumed.
  2. Neurology : Even newborns from families at risk show deviating brain wave patterns when presenting verbal and non-verbal acoustic stimuli. Even in schoolchildren and adults with dyslexia, deviations in the activation pattern in the cerebral cortex could be detected with the help of imaging procedures while reading. These mainly affect the language processing centers in the temporal and frontal lobes of the left hemisphere, in which different activation centers and locations can be found compared to non-dyslexic people. It was also observed that the responsible brain centers do not work sufficiently synchronously or are not sufficiently networked. Furthermore, there are indications of a deficit in the processing of rapid consequences of stimuli, which can be traced back to a less efficient transmission of excitation in the visual and auditory pathways.
  3. Disorders of perception and gaze function: Disorders of auditory and / or visual perception as well as disorders of gaze control can contribute to reading and spelling disorders and dyscalculia, even if peripheral hearing and vision problems are exclusion criteria for an LRS diagnosis. The gaze jumps ( saccades ) of children with LRS are often more imprecise than those of children of the same age, and up to 60% of dyslexic children have problems deliberately controlling their gaze precisely as is necessary when reading text (see also point 2 . Neurology).
    Relationship between dyslexia and language delay
  4. Risk factor language development delay : Children usually cross the 50-word limit at around 18 to 24 months and begin to use two-word sentences. However, 13 to 20% of children do not yet have 50 words by the age of 24 months. These children are known as "late talkers", in German "late speakers". About half of the "late talkers" catch up with the development deficit by the age of three to four years (so-called "late bloomers" in German "late bloomers"), while the other half have a language development disorder. In around 50% of children with a language development delay, reading and spelling disorders occur as a result. So it can be said that around a quarter of children who cannot use 50 words at the age of 24 months and cannot yet speak two-word sentences will later develop a reading and spelling disorder.
  5. Phonological information processing: Phonological awareness is the most important single predictor (= characteristic with predictive power) of reading development, and a close relationship between it and spelling performance has been demonstrated. Around two thirds of children who later develop a reading and spelling disorder can already be recognized in preschool age or at the time of starting school on the basis of weaknesses in phonological awareness.
  6. Domestic reading socialization: Children from weaker social classes have an increased risk of developing a reading and spelling disorder. However, unfavorable socio-economic conditions do not necessarily lead to difficulties in reading and writing. Another factor that has not yet been adequately researched is television consumption at home. It is still unclear to what extent television can be seen as the cause of the weaker speech and reading abilities of the “frequent viewers”. Equally plausible is the assumption that children with language deficits only prefer the "lighter" medium of television as a leisure activity. While the consumption of adult and entertainment programs shows consistently negative correlations with the language and reading abilities of children, there are generally positive correlations for programs with educational intent. On the other hand, children who watch a lot of television tend to have the poorest performance in language and reading tests.


If there is a suspicion of a reading and spelling disorder, organic causes such as the presence of hearing loss or ametropia (impaired senses) must first be ruled out. For this purpose, the child must be examined by appropriate specialists. Unfavorable framework conditions should be clarified with the parents, such as the presence of emotional and psychological stress, for example due to a separation of the parents, inadequate pressure to perform, the domestic work and living situation, television consumption, etc. Under certain circumstances, causes for the performance problems can already be identified and at this point be resolved.

If no cause of the difficulties can be found, the next step is to record both the child's performance level and the performance profile. There are a number of standardized procedures and procedures that can be applied to the analysis of free texts with which the child's performance can be assessed very precisely.

To distinguish between general problems in the written language area and the partial performance disorder dyslexia, performance in an intelligence test is also used in addition to performance in reading and spelling tests, in accordance with the revised version of the guidelines in 2015 . Dyslexia is only diagnosed if there is a significantly higher level of intelligence with poor written language skills. The performance in the written language must be at least one standard deviation below the class or age norm. The performance of the child must therefore belong to the 15.8% weakest performance of the reference group. The test result of the intelligence test must be 1.5 standard deviations higher than the performance in the written language test. The exact billing procedure remains unspecified. It can therefore be a simple discrepancy or the regression approach can be used. A less strict one standard deviation discrepancy can be used when there is additional evidence from clinical investigations, e.g. B. Additional information from teachers and parents, a detailed medical history or other diagnostic information, although fiscal policy makers usually judge the programmed higher costs for the state (and social security) negatively.

The above Discrepancy criteria are the subject of controversial debates, since generally reading poor children do not differ in their error profiles from children with LRS and both groups benefit equally from support measures regardless of intelligence (see also criticism of the dyslexia construct ). Accordingly, in the new regulation of the guidelines, professional societies such as the DGPs put forward special opinions against the discrepancy criterion and the discrepancy could only be resolved with a narrow majority of 59% approval. The very influential DSM-5 (p. 73) generally dispenses with this discrepancy criterion and only excludes the area of ​​poor cognitive talent, unless the reading and spelling skills in this case are very significantly below the other school performance. As a result, at least in the English-speaking world, there is no distinction between a general reading and writing disorder and a reading and writing disorder (dyslexia). All children with literacy problems under the diagnostic category "Specific Learning Disorder" (= Instead, without distinction learning disorder ) with the sub-315.00 "With impairment in reading" and 315.2 "With impairment in written expression" summarized. In contrast to the guidelines, the underperforming area for written language performance is defined much more narrowly and limited to the weakest 7%.

The research criteria according to ICD-10, which are also included in the multiaxial classification scheme according to ICD-10 , contain a much stricter version of these discrepancy criteria. Both the discrepancy between the result in an intelligence diagnostic and a school performance test (reading, writing, arithmetic; ipsative reference) and the discrepancy between the result in a school performance test and the performance that would actually be expected for a corresponding age (social reference norm) 2 standard deviations . The calculation of the required IQ discrepancy on the one hand and the reference group discrepancy on the other hand is ideally carried out with the aid of the z-transformation based on T values and IQ points.

Prevention and therapy

Reading and spelling disorders can be treated very effectively or the learning situation can be improved if they are recognized early on. Preventive measures before the actual written language acquisition or in the first year of school are most successful . These preventive measures are based on the diagnosis and promotion of phonological awareness . Ideally, potential difficulties should be identified and addressed before literacy problems arise.

If a child has long-term problems with the written language, it is advisable to start support as early as possible. Intervention measures are most effective in the first two years of primary school; then the problems become chronic very quickly. There are numerous effective procedures that, depending on the age of the child and individual symptoms, can lead to improvements in reading and / or spelling performance. Effective promotion must start directly with the reading and writing process. The most effective funding programs have proven to be those that train methods to secure the grapheme-phoneme assignment, to break down words into smaller units (syllables, morphemes) and to repeatedly read these word parts. Most of the time, however, an average level of written language is not achieved, and some of the children still have problems despite intensive, long-term support. In these cases, the relief of the student concerned from the pressure of school grades has priority (see "Dyslexia, Society and School" ). Since dyslexia is often caused by a massive secondary problem such as B. School anxiety is accompanied, it is often necessary to supplement with additional psychological interventions. Treatment of concomitant disorders includes, among other things:

  • Reduction of performance-related fears and development of motivation to learn, exercises for concentration and relaxation , the development of self-help methods, techniques of error control and self-confirmation;
  • Practice of coping strategies : processing of experiences of errors and experiences of failure;
  • Treatment of specific psychopathological symptoms such as B. fear of school, wetting or antisocial development.

Due to the large number of approaches, reference is made at this point to an overview of evidence-based approaches from the Austrian Ministry of Culture. According to the recommendations of the Federal Dyslexia Association and Suchodoletz, the following approaches should be viewed critically:

School law and social law

Correct command of the written language is a characteristic of education and intelligence in today's society . Children and young people with LRS were stigmatized as stupid or lazy, and for a long time they were denied a higher education .

The need to legally regulate the consideration of the LRS in schools was first recognized in 1985 by Schleswig-Holstein, which was one of the first federal states to put the so-called dyslexia decree into force, in which students with diagnosed reading and spelling disorders were granted extensive rights , including time surcharges of up to 50% and grade protection (ie the failure to take into account the spelling performance of the respective student in all German-language subjects) for written work. In 2003, the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs (KMK) adopted “Principles for the support of schoolchildren with particular difficulties in reading and spelling or arithmetic” and revised them in 2007. Today, every federal state has its own legislation on how to deal with written language problems in schools. These regulations vary greatly from state to state, so that it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the relevant regulations.

Examination procedure and grading

With regard to the possibilities of taking reading and spelling disorders into account in school exams, a legal distinction is usually made between disadvantage compensation and grade protection. The compensation for disadvantages, especially in the form of the time extension for examinations, is largely recognized by law. In contrast, the protection of notes is legally very controversial. All federal states provide for a remark on the certificate to indicate that the spelling has not been assessed. The Bavarian VGH ruled on May 28, 2014, that these comments were inadmissible in Bavaria; the notes lack a legal basis. This judgment was revised by the Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig on July 29, 2015. It was permissible to point out that the spelling was not scored, but not that the student was dyslexic. There is actually no legal basis in the School Act for a reference to the non-assessment of individual aspects of student performance, but on the other hand there is also no sufficient legal basis for the protection of grades. A ministerial decree is not sufficient for this. If there is no legal basis for the protection of notes, this also applies to its consequence, the corresponding remark in the certificate. Both are illegal. However, the student cannot demand that the illegally obtained grade be retained and that only the note be deleted that documents the deviation from the otherwise applicable performance requirements. There is also the constitutional prohibition against discriminating against disabled people because of their disability, no entitlement to banknote protection without its documentation in the certificate. Three constitutional complaints have been pending at the Federal Constitutional Court against the judgment of the Federal Administrative Court since 2015 (Ref .: 1 BvR 2577/15, 2578/15 and 2579/15).

The Federal Constitutional Court also granted the constitutional complaint against the decision of the Lower Saxony Higher Administrative Court of September 20, 2012 - 2 LA 234/11 (unpublished) by decision of June 9, 2016, Az .: 1 BvR 2453/12 . The decision of the OVG Lüneburg concerns the main proceedings that were concluded after four and a half years following an urgent procedure from 2008. The Federal Constitutional Court leads in Rn. 21 of his decision that the question of the extent to which a student with dyslexia is entitled to a non-assessment of spelling is of fundamental importance. The question concerns the scope of the entitlement to a disability-related compensation for disadvantages, which is in principle based on the principle of equal opportunities and the prohibition of discrimination in accordance with Article 3, Paragraph 3, Sentence 2 of the Basic Law. In marg. 22, the court points out that, when applying rules that give teachers leeway in assessing the spelling, it must be checked whether the disabilities, if recognized, have been adequately taken into account in the devaluations.

The high school graduate of the year 2008, whose case gave rise to the above Discussions is, until 2019 (eleven and a half years after his urgent application) there was no final decision on how cases like his should be handled in principle, i.e. H. whether the grade in the written examination subject German has to be changed after the Abitur certificate has been issued and whether the grade point average in the Abitur has to be improved by a maximum of 0.1 grade points.

Special educational measures

From the budgets of the respective ministry of education or the local school authorities , special educational measures in the schools are financed on the basis of decrees of the respective countries. This is primarily about targeted, individual support as a supplement to normal lessons and the orientation of the support offer to the respective level of development and performance profile of those concerned.

Definition of reading and spelling weaknesses as "sick" and / or "disabled"

In addition to school law, which regulates the consideration of dyslexia in schools, social law is also relevant, which can influence school regulations as well as regulating the possibilities and prerequisites for extracurricular support and payment. In addition to school support or if the school support options have been exhausted, there is the possibility of applying for payment for extracurricular therapy [sic!] For a reading and spelling disorder in accordance with Section 35a of the Eighth Book of the Social Security Code at the local youth welfare office. Depending on the federal state, this is linked to various requirements (on the part of the student and also the therapist).

In the case of externally financed therapy, it is in those countries that find it difficult to classify all pupils affected by LRS as "disabled" (in September 2012, for example, the Lower Saxony Higher Administrative Court spoke of a "degree of dyslexia that fulfills the concept of disability") above all, to remedy or alleviate an already existing or threatening mental handicap of the young person through the psychological and social consequences of the disorder (his “secondary neurotization ”). The statement of an expert that there had to be “no severe disability ” in the case of the LRS and that “no psychological problems in the sense of an imminent or existing mental disability as in § 35a SGB VIII are required” was made by administrative courts in Baden-Württemberg , Hesse and Schleswig-Holstein already rated as applicable in the 2000s.

The main prerequisite for funding through the provisions of the German Social Security Code is the recognition of the person to be sponsored as a “sick” or “disabled” person. As a result, integration assistants , if their use and funding are approved at all for students with an isolated reading and spelling disorder, are not allowed to be involved in teaching because they are responsible for promoting attention and mindfulness, but not for teaching students to help with the subject matter.

The North Rhine-Westphalian district government in Düsseldorf, on the other hand, criticizes the tendency of many teachers to “see the LRS issue as a matter for experts” and “and [demand] a psychological report in order to justify special funding.” As a rule, educators, especially German teachers to be able to independently identify a student's level of educational needs. However, according to the district government, the pedagogical freedom of teachers consists only in “deciding on the optimal HOW of funding. It is not at the discretion of the teacher to promote or to leave it at all. "


Zielinski (1998, p. 108) saw in the definition of discrepancy a metrological artificial product without clear contours, the usefulness of which would also be strongly questioned. Shaywitz et al. (1996; p. 212) complained that the definition of discrepancy tended to meet administrative requirements, but for many it was an arbitrary exclusion criterion for funding measures. The points of criticism in detail:

  1. Lack of differences in information processing: Children with generally poor performance and children who show a discrepancy between IQ and language performance do not differ from one another at the word recognition level, neither in terms of phonological nor orthographic operations. They also develop at the same rate at this level.
  2. Lack of neuroanatomical differences: Weak readers with and without a dyslexia certificate show no brain morphological differences and no differences in activation patterns when processing written material.
  3. The same therapeutic approaches: children with and without dyslexia benefit to the same extent from the same support measures (see also Weber et al. 2002).
  4. Only weak indications of various causes: Weak readers with and without dyslexia show that the difficulties are inheritable. Heredity tends to be higher in dyslexics. But it is more a quantitative than a qualitative difference.
  5. Error profiles: Children with problems reading and writing make the same spelling errors, have a similarly high error rate, develop equally slowly and do not differ in their error profiles.

Aids for students with reading and spelling disabilities

Every student with LRS has different strengths and weaknesses to which one can respond with special tools and technologies. There is no universally applicable solution for all problems, but a careful selection of the right equipment and suitable software will make it easier for everyone affected to develop compensation strategies in order to be able to work independently in the long term.

Measures to support the students:

  1. Support, advice, help and acceptance of the situation of parents, school and professionals in order to recognize and determine the student's own (different) learning style. Here parents, school, school psychologists, school doctors and specialists must first work together to recognize where the problem lies. Without a previous anamnesis, help can be ineffective.
  2. Learning strategies that compensate for weaknesses on the one hand with strengths on the other.
  3. A multisensory environment in which as many sensory organs as possible, such as hearing, seeing, haptic experiences (feeling, grasping), and also memory, concentration, linguistic skills in listening, answering and talking are promoted. Aids: Dealing with appropriate computer programs, audio books, reading aloud, and learning programs, which are offered in abundance for pupils with weak knowledge.
  4. Later you can use larger programs with automatic error correction or even use a reading program where the computer does the reading. The Federal Association of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia, for example, works with the “ReadSpeaker” on its website, and there is a “Reading Pen” that is also interesting for foreign languages. For some school books there is suitable software that is helpful for dyslexic students. Sometimes an enlargement of the text created with the scanner or a certain "color foil for dyslexics" is sufficient, which makes reading much more pleasant.
  5. A supporting task of the supervisor is to provide the necessary technologies and to familiarize the student with them. Of course, it will continue to be important to ask the schools and teachers for support so that dyslexics can use their special aids, such as a laptop , special work instructions or a recording device, in the classroom. Success can be achieved depending on the understanding and competence of the teachers.
  6. Accept the child as it is and offer structured help (daily routine and learning structure).

In addition, hearing aids are used that are connected to the teacher's microphone and that amplify the teacher's voice, but not ambient noise in the classroom. These hearing aids are used to improve hearing and reading skills.

Font design

The following fonts have been specially designed for the needs of dyslexic people:

In general, sans serif fonts are preferred, as the horizontal lines at the ends of the letters tend to distract. The ascenders and descenders of the letters b , d , p , q as well as k and h should have a pronounced length.

The occurrence of letters that merge into other letters through rotation or mirroring is viewed critically: The group of four lowercase letters b , d , p , q is particularly confusing. So-called school pamphlets ( primers ) are also affected.

Comic Sans font received positive reviews.

Artistic depictions of reading and spelling disorder

Movie and TV

  • 1981: The Princess and the Cabbie (love drama about a rich woman suffering from LRS), directed by Glenn Jordan
  • 1984: Backwards: The Riddle of Dyslexia (children’s and youth’s film about the student Brian, who suffers from LRS and then disrupts class.), Director: Alexander Grasshoff
  • 1985: Love, Mary (True story of Dr. Mary Groda-Lewis delinquent and whose social worker discovers she has LRS), directed by Robert Day
  • 1992: The Secret (TV movie about Mike who can't read or write and finds out he has LRS and suffers from it just like his grandson), directed by Karen Arthur
  • 1999: Anya's Bell (TV movie about a blind woman teaching a 12 year old boy with LRS to read), directed by Tom McLoughlin
  • 2004: Mean Creek (George, suffering from LRS, terrorizes Sam, whereupon Sam and his brother Rocky decide to take revenge, but they also get to know another side of George), directed by Jacob Aaron Estes
  • 2005: In My Sister's Shoes , directed by Curtis Hanson
  • 2005: A Mind of Her Own (Based on a true story, the film tells of Sophie who decides to study medicine even though her parents and teachers advise against it because she has dyslexia.), Directed by Owen Carey Jones
  • 2007: Bad (Bad is about the life of a boy with dyslexia), directed by Vincenzo Giammanco
  • 2005: Taare Zameen Par - A Star on Earth (Ishaan Awasthi is very creative but fails at school. An art teacher realizes he is dyslexic and supports the boy), directed by Aamir Khan
  • 2010: Percy Jackson - Thieves in Olympus (fantasy film starring a teenager with dyslexia), directed by Chris Columbus

Similar disorders

  • Dyscalculia - developmental delay in math skills
  • Dyslexia and Alexia - Acquired forms of written language problems, such as those due to a traumatic brain injury or a brain tumor

Related topics

Web links

Wiktionary: dyslexia  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Pschyrembel Medical Dictionary. 257th revised edition, special edition. Nikol, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-933203-04-X , p. 859.
  2. Friedhelm Espeter: Affected by dyslexia / dyscalculia! . Federal Association of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia p. 8
  3. Heidelberg University of Education: What is an LRS?
  4. According to researchers, spelling and reading disabilities do not have the same cause Diagnosing with artificial words Die Welt , November 12, 2014, accessed April 10, 2015
  5. Janin Brandenburg, Julia Klesczweski, Anne Fischbach, Kirsten Schuchardt, Gerhard Büttner & Marcus Hasselhorn: Working Memory in Children With Learning Disabilities in Reading Versus Spelling: Searching for Overlapping and Specific Cognitive Factors In: Journal of Learning Disabilities 2014, doi : 10.1177 / 0022219414521665 .
  6. Karin Landerl, Kristina Moll: Dissociation between disorders of reading and disorders of spelling. In: Gerd Schulte-Körne, Günther Thomé (Ed.) (2014): LRS - dyslexia. interdisciplinary. Oldenburg: Isb-Verlag, pp. 47-60. ISBN 978-3-942122-11-5 . doi : 10.1177 / 0022219414521665 .
  7. Dt. Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2003 ( Memento from April 29, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  8. Carola Reuter-Liehr: Lautgetreue Reading and Spelling Promotion, Volume 1. Bochum 2001, p. 140 ff. (3rd, completely revised and expanded edition 2008, p. 200 ff.)
  9. Gerd Schulte-Körne / Helmut Remschmidt: Dyslexia - symptoms, diagnosis, causes, course and treatment . 2003
  10. Friedhelm Espeter: Affected by dyslexia / dyscalculia! What rights do the data subjects have? . Federal Association of Dyslexia / Dyscalculia VS 14
  11. Administrative Court of Hanover: Integration assistance according to youth welfare law; Entitlement to reimbursement of costs for dyslexia therapy. Decision of February 10, 2012
  12. Wolfram Meyerhöfer: Dyslexia? Dyscalculia? It's not the children's mind that is the problem! . LegaKids Foundation, November 6, 2015
  13. Britta Büchner / Michael Kortländer / Birgit Werner / Nicole Robering / Friedrich Schönweiss: Dyslexia - a disease, a disability, a disorder? Right to education and individual support instead of selection and stigmatization ., April 9, 2013
  14. Homepage of
  15. Britta Büchner / Renate Valtin / Michael Kortländer / David Gerlach: The medical diagnosis "dyslexia" is misleading and harms the interests of children . LegaKids Foundation, May 2015
  16. Simon E. Fisher, John C. DeFries: Developmental Dyslexia: Genetic Dissection of a Complex Cognitive Trait. In: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. Issue 3, 2002, ISSN  1471-003X , pp. 767-780, doi : 10.1038 / nrn936 .
  17. J. Schumacher et al .: Strong genetic evidence of DCDC2 as a susceptibility gene for dyslexia. In: American Journal of Human Genetics . Volume 78, number 1, January 2006, pp. 52-62, doi : 10.1086 / 498992 , PMID 16385449 , PMC 1380223 (free full text).
  18. ^ Dennis L. Molfese: Predicting Dyslexia at 8 Years of Age Using Neonatal Brain Responses. In: Brain and Language. Vol. 72, No. 3, 2000, ISSN  0093-934X , pp. 238–245, online (PDF; 38 kB)  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  19. Tomi K. Guttorm, Paavo HT Leppänen, Ulla Richardson, Heikki Lyytinen: Event-Related Potentials and Consonant Differentiation in Newborns with Familial Risk for Dyslexia. In: Journal of Learning Disabilities. Issue 34, 2001, ISSN  0022-2194 , pp. 534-544, doi : 10.1177 / 002221940103400606 .
  20. B. Fischer, Monica Biscaldi, K. Hartnegg: The importance of gaze control in reading and spelling weaknesses. In: language, voice, hearing. Vol. 22, 1998, ISSN  0342-0477 , pp. 18-24.
  21. Burkhart Fischer, Klaus Hartnegg: Saccade Control in Dyslexia: Development, Deficits, training, transfer to Reading. In: Optometry & Vision Development. Vol. 39, No. 4, 2008, pp. 181–190, online (PDF; 308 kB) .
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