|density||7,929.5 Ew. / km²|
|mayor||Akhyar Nasution ( PDI-P )|
View over Medan (2008)
Location and structure
The city spreads out on a coastal plain in the northeast of the island of Sumatra, with the city center being approximately 20 km from the coast and the Strait of Malacca . The sea port of Belawan is located on the coast .
Medan is the capital of the province of North Sumatra and is surrounded by the government district ( Kabupaten ) Deli Serdang .
Medan was founded by Karo- Batak in 1590 and was called Kampung Medan (Medan Village) or Medan-Deli . The settlement developed in the field of tension between different sultanates : the powerful Aceh and the smaller Deli , Siak and Serdang . It originally belonged to Deli until it was defeated and annexed by Aceh in 1612. In 1658 the Dutch took over the settlement, established tobacco plantations from 1860 and made Medan the capital of the province of North Sumatra in 1915 .
In 1823 Medan only had 200 inhabitants, in 1918 it had 43,900.
Two of Indonesia's largest airplane accidents occurred in the urban area of Medan, each with almost 150 fatalities. On September 5, 2005, Mandala Airlines Flight 91 crashed over the city and on June 30, 2015 there was an air accident in which a Lockheed C-130 Hercules military aircraft of the Indonesian Air Force crashed over the city area.
The city is with a little over two million inhabitants - after Jakarta and Surabaya - the third largest city in Indonesia and before Palembang the largest city on the island of Sumatra . A total of over six million people live in the Medan metropolitan area with the adjacent Belawan seaport .
The population consists of Batak , although the mandailing are occasionally shown separately, and Malays from Javanese , Achinese , Sundanese , Minangkabau and Chinese ( immigrated as part of the Transmigrasi program) , but also Sikh , Arabs and Tamils .
Culture and sights
- Some buildings in the Dutch style have been preserved in the city: the old town hall, the post office and the Tirtanadi water tower, which is also the symbol of the city. In and around Jl. Ahmad Yani there are a large number of interesting commercial buildings in Art Deco and Art Nouveau , but some are in a pitiful condition.
- The Maimun Palace ( Istana Maimun ) was built in the years 1887-1891, while the last ruling sultan of Deli was still alive.
- The Great Mosque (Masjid Raya) was built in 1906 in the Moroccan style by the Dutch architect Dingemans.
- The Orangutan Rehabilitation Center is located in Bukit Lawang , on the edge of the Gunung Leuser National Park, about 70 km from the city .
There are 2 public and 20 private universities in the city.
A large part of urban traffic is motorized becaks (three-wheel car Rikschas unwound).
A toll road connects Medan with Belawan and Tanjungmorawa. The railway connects Medan with Binjai and Tanjungpura in the northwest, with Belawan in the north and with Tebing Tinggi and Pematang Siantar in the southwest.
The old Bandar Udara Polonia Internasional airport is located near the city center. This airport was opened in 1928 on the site of a plantation that belonged to a Pole. It has been replaced by a new airport 18 km outside the city. The Kuala Namu Airport started in 2006 and the opening was on July 25, 2013.
Sons and daughters:
- Carl Anton Wilhelm Hirschmann (1877–1951), Dutch football pioneer and official
- Jan van Breda Kolff (1894–1976), Dutch football player
- Teddy Yip (1907–2003), Dutch entrepreneur and motorsport team boss of Chinese descent
- Walle Nauta (1916–1994), Dutch neuroanatomist , Righteous Among the Nations
- Chairil Anwar (1922–1949), Indonesian poet
- Erika Remberg (1932–2017), Austrian actress
- Arifin Siregar (1934–2019), politician and diplomat
- Millicent Wiranto (* 1993), badminton player