Maximilian von Frey

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Maximilian "Max" Ruppert Franz von Frey (born November 16, 1852 in Salzburg , † January 25, 1932 in Würzburg ) was a German-Austrian physiologist .


Maximilian von Frey was the second of five children of Anna Frey, b. Gugg, and the merchant and art collector Carl von Frey, who came from a noble family in Upper Austria.

Max von Frey lived in Salzburg with his family on the Salzburg Mönchsberg until he was 19 , where his father had converted a medieval tower into an apartment. He studied medicine in Vienna , Leipzig , Freiburg and Munich . He received his doctorate from the University of Leipzig in 1877 and did research there at the Physiological Institute of Carl Ludwig until his death. In 1898 he became professor of physiology at the University of Zurich and in 1899 in Würzburg (where Edgar Wöhlisch succeeded him in 1932). In 1885, together with Max Gruber, he developed the first prototype of today's heart-lung machine .

Tomb of the Frey family in the Salzburg municipal cemetery

He is particularly known for his research on mechanoreceptors related to skin and depth sensitivity . Fundamental considerations about the senses of cold, warmth, muscles, pain, positioning, etc. go back to him. Frey developed an esthesiometer , the Von Frey hair , which consists of differently calibrated fibers. These fibers are used to determine the threshold level of force that must be applied in order to sense touch. These findings are used in quantitative sensory testing .

Max von Frey had been married to Leonie von Parsefal since September 1888, their daughter Marianne was born on February 6, 1890.

Maximilian von Frey was an associate member of the Saxon Academy of Sciences from October 16, 1893 to October 15, 1898 . In 1908 he was elected a member of the Leopoldina . In 1911 he was chairman of the Society of German Natural Scientists and Doctors .

In 1919 Max von Frey had 123 shares in the "Achthal Iron Union" in Teisendorf .

Other services

Even as a schoolboy Max von Frey was interested in discoveries. So he worked together with the later painter Anton Sattler for his teacher Dr. Michael Walz at the cataloging of the grave monuments of the St. Peter monastery in Salzburg. His father Carl von Frey contributed the drawings .

Like their parents, the children of the Frey family were very enthusiastic about the mountains. Max von Frey made several difficult mountain tours and first ascents at a young age. Carl von Frey (with Anton Sattler) made a panorama of the Hochkönig on September 11, 1868, his wife Anna and son Max accompany them. The same batch was on August 22, 1871 for the same activity at Hundstod. Max von Frey and his guide Johann Punz opened a separate route to the Hochkalter, via the Blaueistal, the Schönen Fleck and the water walls on September 26, 1873. Not all ascents went smoothly; Max von Frey, his brother Richard, their brother-in-law Eduard Richter and Dr. Anton Sattler spent a bivouac night on September 8, 1875 on the way from Kahlersberg to Blühnbach . The first ascent of the Alpriedlhorn was made by Max von Frey with his brother Richard and Richard von Lonski on September 10, 1875, the next day the first ascent of the Wildalm Church and the Brandhorn took place . On September 10, 1878, Max von Frey ascended with his brother Rudolf and Dr. H. Buchner from Munich on a new route to the Grubenkarspitze in the Karwendel . A direct ascent to the Great Devil's Horn was also found with the help of Max von Frey. He rose with Eduard Buchner from Munich, Ernst Enderlein and Eduard von Lonski on September 13, 1885. Frey went on mountain tours together with his friend and colleague, the physiology professor Rudolf Metzner.

Max von Frey and his wife Leonie were among the first skiers in Salzburg, as a photograph from February 6, 1893 shows.


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Holger Münzel: Max von Frey. Life and work with special consideration of his sensory-physiological research. Würzburg 1992 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 53), p. 4 and 182 f.
  2. ^ Holger Münzel: Max von Frey. Life and work with special consideration of his sensory-physiological research. Würzburg 1992 (= Würzburg Medical History Research , 53), p. 5.
  3. Erich Bauereisen : The Physiological Institute. In: Peter Baumgart (Ed.): Four hundred years of the University of Würzburg. A commemorative publication. Degener & Co. (Gerhard Gessner), Neustadt an der Aisch 1982 (= sources and contributions to the history of the University of Würzburg. Volume 6), ISBN 3-7686-9062-8 , pp. 1027-1031; here: p. 1027.
  4. Heinz-Gerd Zimmer: The Heart-Lung Machine was Invented Twice — the First Time by Max von Frey. In: Clinical Cardiology. Vol. 26, September 2003, pp. 443-445.
  5. M. von Frey: About the use of irritant hair. Investigations into the sensory functions of the human skin . First Treatise: Sensation of Pressure and Pain. In: Treatises of the mathematical-physical class of the Royal Saxon Society of Sciences . tape 23 , 1896, pp. 208-217 .
  6. ^ Peter F. Kramml: Salzburg 1888-1896 in photographs by Carl von Frey. Salzburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-900213-21-3 , p. 234.
  8. MGSLK 60/1920, p. 29.
  9. ^ M. Walz: Grabdenkmaeler in Salzburg from 1235 to 1600, The Grabdenkmäler von St. Peter and Nonnberg zu Salzburg. First division, publishing house of the Society for Salzburg Regional Studies, Salzburg 1867. (online)
  10. ^ Peter F. Kramml: Salzburg 1888-1896 in photographs by Carl von Frey. Salzburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-900213-21-3 , pp. 218f.