Measuring table sheet

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Structure of topographic maps (measuring table sheets) in Germany from 1870–1943
Table sheet 3759 Schwiebus ( Świebodzin ), 1933

Measuring table sheet , formerly measuring table sheet , is an outdated name in Germany for the topographic map on a scale of 1: 25,000 (today's name: TK 25 ). Here, 4 cm on the map corresponds to 1 km in nature ("four-centimeter map"), which makes this map type particularly popular with hikers - also because of the associated precision.

An original table sheet is a table sheet from the Prussian first recording between 1830 and 1865.


The name is explained by the classic recording process (see: land surveying ) of topographic maps in the area , which was carried out using a measuring table and tilt rule .


Section of a measuring table sheet 1: 25,000

TK 25, which is still in use today, was created in the early years of the German Empire , initially in Prussia , Mecklenburg, Oldenburg , the Hanseatic cities and the smaller central German states as part of the Prussian land registration from 1876 to the beginning of the 20th century, followed by Saxony the land survey from 1898 to 1924, Hesse by reworking the elevation levels map of Hessen 1: 25.000 , Baden through revision of the topographic map of Baden 1: 25.000 , Württemberg by generalizing from the height field map 1: 2500 and Bayern by generalizing from the height field map 1: 5000 on Basis of the previously created position control point field .

In the GDR from 1956 to 1969 a new topographic land survey was carried out on a scale of 1: 10,000, the result of which was a topographic map 1: 10,000 . A completely new TK 25 was derived from this by generalization. After the reunification of Germany, the GDR's TK 25 was fitted back into the old TK 25 system from the time of the German Empire.

The maps were originally in black and white in the Prussian processing area. In Saxony, Hesse, Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria, however, the maps appeared in three colors with a black floor plan, brown contour lines and blue waters. The standard today is a four-color edition with additional green forest areas, in the Bavarian Alps also with sculptural terrain shading.

Degree department card

The map sheets are structured as degree division maps, i.e. the maps (the sheet section ) are delimited by whole-numbered meridians and circles of latitude . Each map sheet is 10 minutes wide and 6 minutes high; thus the area in central Germany depicted on a sheet is about 10 by 10 kilometers. For example, the lower left corner point of sheet “6926 Stimpfach” corresponds exactly to 49 ° 0 'north and 10 ° 0' east and the upper right corner point 49 ° 6 'north and 10 ° 10' east. The Bessel ellipsoid was used as the reference ellipsoid for the maps . Therefore, to use the coordinates for modern GPS applications, for example, they must first be transformed into the “ WGS 84 ” coordinate system.

In addition to roads, paths and terrain markings, the maps also contain contour lines (isohypses) and are therefore only designed for the solid surface of the earth, information on water depths and tides are completely missing.

Print resolution of a topographic map

The detail resolution of a 1: 25,000 map is around 12 m, which corresponds to a point spacing on the map of 0.5 mm. At the bottom right of the map section (right picture) the small black bars each symbolize a length of 10 m. The resolution is sufficient to resolve the width of streets.

To ensure easy handling of the measuring table sheets, each map sheet is also given a flat, rectangular coordinate grid at intervals of four centimeters (corresponds to one kilometer), so that only one pair of values ​​from the so-called upper and lower values ​​is required for any given location. This is where the term “four-centimeter card”, which was used earlier, comes from.

This simple map display reaches its limits because firstly the earth's surface is not flat and secondly the meridians (also in Germany) do not run parallel. This leads to overlapping zones in which location information can optionally be given according to the left or right reference meridian.

Sheet designation

Originally, the measuring table sheets were numbered consecutively line by line from west to east in the north.

The individual sheets have been designated with four-digit numbers since 1937, whereby the first two digits represent the line of a north-south sequence, the last two digits the column of a west-east sequence; the name of the largest or (historically) most important place in the depicted area can also be used to designate the sheet (example: "4425 Göttingen" is the sheet in the 44th row from the north and the 25th column from the west, with Göttingen as the largest Place; or "5506 Aremberg": 55th row from the north and 6th column from the west, Aremberg was the most important place until 1794). The starting point for the numbering is 56 ° North and 5 ° 50 'East according to the territorial status of the German Empire at that time . The northernmost point was on the Baltic Sea near Nimmersatt in Memelland (East Prussia) and can be found on sheet 0192.

Exemplary section in northwest Germany
Examples of the current TK 25
number Surname state Situation in Germany
0916 List (Sylt) Schleswig-Holstein northernmost leaf
8727 Beaver head Bavaria southernmost leaf
4901 Selfkant North Rhine-Westphalia westernmost leaf
4755 Niesky Ost Saxony easternmost leaf

The example shows a section in northwest Germany in East Frisia. The top red number indicates the year of the first issue of the respective map sheet. Below that is the original name of the map sheet (also in red), if it differs from today's name. Next, the current number of the card sheet is given, underneath is the current name of the card sheet.

Larger cities are sometimes also named on several pages next to one another, for example "7120 Stuttgart-Nordwest", "7121 Stuttgart-Nordost", "7220 Stuttgart-Südwest" and "7221 Stuttgart-Südost", each with the Baden-Württemberg state capital Stuttgart as the most important place.

The historical names of the leaves differ in some cases from today's names, for example today's leaves were called "6323 Tauberbischofsheim-West", "6324 Tauberbischofsheim-Ost" and "6423 Ahorn", formerly "6323 Tauberbischofsheim", "6324 Grünsfeld" and " 6423 Gissigheim ". This can have various reasons: An important place may have expanded into the area of ​​another sheet (e.g. Tauberbischofsheim from sheet No. 6323 to sheet No. 6324) or a new important place was chosen, among other things after in the area of ​​one Blattes in the course of a territorial reform a new municipality was created, on the basis of which the corresponding sheet was renamed in the following (e.g. the municipality of Ahorn through the territorial reform in Baden-Württemberg in sheet no. 6423).


Today the measuring table method has largely been replaced by aerial photogrammetry ; the designation "measuring table sheet" for the TK 25 is anachronistic and is only rarely used.

See also

Web links

Commons : Measurement table sheet  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Topographic map (measuring table sheets): 4 cm map / ed. from the Reich Office for Land Registration. - 1:25,000. - Berlin: Reichsamt für Landesaufnahme. - Ktn .: per sheet 48 x 45 cm, ed. Alternating, u. a .: Prussian land survey .; Kgl. Preuss. General staff; Prussia / Land recording; Prussia / Great General Staff; Hessen / Land Survey Office. - Changing publ.
  2. a b Topographical map (equidistant map) Saxony / edited in the topographical office of the Royal General Staff. - 1:25,000. - Leipzig: Giesecke & Devrient. - Each sheet 46 x 44 cm. Ed. Alternating: Sachsen / Generalstab
  3. a b Topographical map (measuring table sheets) Saxony: 4 cm map / department for land survey of the Königl. Saxon. General Staff. - 1:25,000. - Leipzig: Giesecke & Devrient. - 155 ct .: per sheet 48 x 45 cm Ed. Alternating: Department for Land Survey of the Saxon General Staff; Reichsamt für Landesaufnahme, Landesaufnahme Sachsen. - Partly re. as a measuring table sheet. - Partly re. as official topographic map (measuring table sheet)
  4. a b Topographic map of Baden / arr. from the bathroom. Water and Road Construction Directorate. - 1:25 000. - Karlsruhe: Kunstdr. Artist Association [u. a.]. - Ktn. ; per sheet 48 x 45 cm number Edit leaf u. ed. from the bathroom. Fin.- u. Economic Min., Department f. topography
  5. a b Topographical Atlas of the Grand Duchy of Baden: in 170 sheets in copperplate engraving in the scale 1: 25000 of the natural length / under the reign of Grand Duke Friedrich edited. from the Topographical Bureau of the Higher Direction of Water and Road Construction in the years 1875 to 1886. - 1:25 000. - Leipzig: Giesecke & Devrient; Hildburghausen: Petters. - 1 ct in 170 sheets; per sheet 48 x 45 cm partially lost at Petters, Hildburghausen. - Ed. Changing: Topographisches Bureau, Baden; Bath. Fin.- and econom. Min. Department for topography
  6. a b New topographic map of the Kingdom of Württemberg on a scale of 1: 25000 / edited. and ed. from the Kgl. State Statistical Office from 1893. - 1:25,000 - Stuttgart. - Ktn. : each sheet 48 x 45 cm partially udT: Topographic map of Württemberg on a scale of 1: 25000 or topographic map of the Kingdom of Württemberg on a scale of 1: 25000. - Ed. Changing: Königliches Statistisches Landesamt Württemberg; Württemberg / State Statistical Office; Main surveying department XII Stuttgart
  7. a b Topographical Map of Bavaria: (Gradabteilungsblatt, 4-cm-Karte) / ed. from Bayer. Topographical Bureau, Main Surveying Department. XIII. - 1:25 000. - Munich. - Ktn. : each sheet 48 x 45 cm, edited alternately, u. a .: Main surveying department <Germany, German Reich, 13 >>; Germany <Deutsches Reich> / main surveying department <11>; Bavaria / Topographical Bureau; Bavaria / Land Survey Office
  8. TK 1:25 000. In: Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
  9. Bavarian Surveying Administration - Products - Topographic Maps - ATK25. In: Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
  10. United States National Map Accuracy Standards (NMAS). Archived from the original on October 8, 2010 ; Retrieved November 21, 2013 .
  11. a b German Photo Library. In: Retrieved August 1, 2020 .
  12. German Photo Library. In: Retrieved August 1, 2020 .
  13. German Photo Library. In: Retrieved August 1, 2020 .
  14. a b c d TK 1:25 000. In: Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
  15. German Photo Library. In: Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
  16. German Photo Library. In: Retrieved August 5, 2020 .
  17. German Photo Library. In: Retrieved August 5, 2020 .