Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Bogolyubov
Nikolay Bogolyubov , Russian Николай Николаевич Боголюбов , English transcription Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogolyubov, (born 8 ^{. Jul} / 21st August 1909 ^{greg.} In Nizhny Novgorod ; † 13. February 1992 in Moscow ) was a Soviet theoretical physicist and mathematician.
Life
At the age of fourteen he took part in a seminar at the Chair of Mathematical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR under the direction of Nikolai Mitrofanovich Krylov . In 1924 he wrote his first scientific thesis, so that in 1925 he was able to start an apprenticeship without a degree . This he completed in 1928 with the promotion and was in 1930 at the age of only 21 years habilitation . From 1928 to 1973 he worked at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR . From 1936 to 1950 he taught as a professor at both the Kiev University and the Lomonosov University in Moscow . From 1949 he worked at the Steklov Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. From 1956 he was also head of the laboratory for theoretical physics at the United Institute for Nuclear Research (VIK) in Dubna , where he took the post of director from 1965. After initially working with purely mathematical problems, he devoted himself to problems in theoretical physics . Together with Krylow he dealt with approximate methods of analysis and nonlinear mechanics. A further part of the investigation concerned questions about a special area of the modern theory of differential equations and functional analysis. Bogoljubow and Krylow created the so-called theory of invariant measures in dynamic systems. In addition, he achieved fundamental work on quantum statistics (in many-body theory) and kinetic theory with the aid of modern mathematical methods. From 1952 to 1957 he wrote a whole cycle of works on quantum field theory .
Bogolyubov founded a school of nonlinear mechanics, statistical physics and quantum field theory. As an outstanding work he found z. B. a strict derivation of the Boltzmann equation and developed the concept of the renormalization group and with Parasiuk the strict mathematical foundation of the renormalization process in quantum field theory (BPHZ formalism, further developed by Klaus Hepp and Wolfhart Zimmermann ).
According to SP Novikov , his reputation among pure mathematicians in Russia had suffered considerably in the 1930s due to petty and exaggerated criticism, which emanated in particular from AA Markow and Dmitri Evgenyevich Menshov . This applied to his solution of Lusin's problem via almost periodic functions, but also to his work with Krylow (which, according to Novikow, also had serious errors) and his relaxed, intuitive style in general. According to Nowikow, this also had advantages for him, as he could study quantum theory undisturbed for years (an area that was otherwise completely neglected by pure mathematicians in the Soviet Union at the time - even leading mathematicians like Andrei Kolmogorov were essentially classical until the 1970s Mechanics, apart from Israel Gelfand). When he turned to physics, especially superfluids, he was initially exposed to sharp criticism from Lew Landau in his seminars. He was able to convince Landau in the end, but the relationship remained tense. Later he had an outstanding position in mathematical physics in the Soviet Union and also had a high international reputation. After Novikov, he was initially close to the influential Soviet mathematicians Ivan Matwejewitsch Vinogradow and Mikhail Alexejewitsch Lavrentjew in tolerating their implementation of the official anti-Semitic tendencies in science policy, which only changed after his rift with Vinogradov in the 1970s.
In 1960 Bogolyubov was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , in 1969 to the National Academy of Sciences (as a Foreign Associate ). In 1966 he received the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics , the Lyapunov Gold Medal in 1989 and the Dirac Medal (ICTP) in 1992 . In 1958 he gave a plenary lecture with Vasily Sergeyevich Vladimirov at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Edinburgh (On some mathematical problems of quantum field theory).
Some of his students were Juri Alexejewitsch Mitropolski , Anatoli Alexejewitsch Logunow , Albert Tawchelidze , Selim Grigoryevich Kerin , Dmitri Wassiljewitsch Schirkow and Jossif Ilyich Gichman (Iosif Ilich Gikhman).
Honors
- Stalin Prize (1947, 1953)
- Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1948,1954)
- Lenin Prize (1958)
- Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics (1966)
- Hero of Socialist Labor (1969, 1979)
- Helmholtz Medal (1969)
- Max Planck Medal (1973)
- State Prize of the USSR (1984)
- Lomonosov Gold Medal (1984)
- Lyapunov Prize (1989)
- Dirac Medal (1992)
- Namesake for (22616) Bogolyubov , an asteroid (2009)
Since 1999, the Russian Academy of Sciences has awarded the Bogolyubov gold medal to Russian and foreign scientists for outstanding achievements in mathematics, theoretical physics or mechanics .
Works and writings
- Sur quelques méthodes nouvelles dans le calcul des variations. In: Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (4th episode), Volume 7, 1930, pp. 249-271.
- with NM Krylow: Introduction to Nonlinear Mechanics. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1947.
- with DW Schirkow : Problems of quantum field theory. II. Elimination of the divergences from the scatter matrix . In: Advances in Physics , Volume 4, 1956, pp. 438-517.
- with OS Parasiuk: About the multiplication of the causal functions in the quantum theory of fields. In: Acta Mathematica , Volume 97, 1957, pp. 227-266
- with BW Medvedev and MK Poliwanow: Problems in the Theory of Dispersion Relations . Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton 1958.
- with DW Schirkow: Introduction to the Theory of Quantized Fields. New York 1959
- with WW Tolmatschew and DW Schirkow: A New Method in the Theory of Superconductivity . Consultants Bureau, New York 1959.
- with JA Mitropoliskii: Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of Non-Linear Oscillations . Gordon and Breach, New York 1961.
- Problems of a Dynamical Theory in Statistical Physics . In: J. De Boer, GE Uhlenbeck (Ed.): Studies in Statistical Mechanics 1 . North Holland, Amsterdam 1962, pp. 1-118
- Lectures on quantum statistics . Gordon & Breach, Volume 1: Quantum Statistics . New York 1967; Volume 2: Quasi-averages . New York 1970
- A Method for studying Model Hamiltonians: A Minimax Principle for Problems in Statistical Physics. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1972
- with AA Logunow and IT Todorow: Introduction to Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory. WA Benjamin, Reading MA 1975, ISBN 0-8053-0982-9 .
- with JA Mitropoliskii and AM Samoilenko: Methods of Accelerated Convergence in Nonlinear Mechanics. Hindustan Publ. Corp., Delhi 1976, ISBN 3-540-07106-7
- with DW Schirkow: Introduction to the Theory of Quantized Field . 3. Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 1980, ISBN 0-471-04223-4 .
- with DW Schirkow: Quantum Fields. Benjamin Cummings, Reading MA 1983, ISBN 0-8053-0983-7
- with NN Bogoljubow junior: Introduction to Quantum Statistical Mechanics . Gordon and Breach 1992, New York, ISBN 2-88124-879-9 .
- with NN Bogoljubow junior: Polaron Theory . World Scientific, 2000
- Selected Works. Part I. Dynamical Theory. Gordon and Breach, New York 1990, ISBN 2-88124-752-0 , ISBN 978-2-88124-752-1 .
- Selected Works. Part II. Quantum and Classical Statistical Mechanics. Gordon and Breach, New York 1991, ISBN 2-88124-768-7 .
- Selected Works. Part III. Nonlinear Mechanics and Pure Mathematics. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam 1995, ISBN 2-88124-918-3 .
- Selected Works. Part IV. Quantum Field Theory. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam 1995, ISBN 2-88124-926-4 .
See also
literature
- VS Vladimirov Nikolai Nikolaevich Bogoliubov- mathematician by the grace of god . In: Bolibruch, Osipov, Sinai (Ed.): Mathematical Events of the Twentieth Century . Springer 2006, p. 475
- Shirkov Remembering Bogoliubov . In: Ukrainian Physical Journal , 2009, arxiv : 0912.2424
Web links
- Author profile in the database zbMATH
Individual evidence
- ^ S. Novikov: The Second Half of the 20th Century and its Conclusion: Crisis in the Physics and Mathematics Community in Russia and in the West . In: AMS Translations , Volume 212, 2004, ras.ru (PDF)
- ↑ Book of Members 1780 – present, Chapter B. (PDF; 1.2 MB) In: American Academy of Arts and Sciences (amacad.org). Retrieved May 1, 2018 .
- ^ Member Directory: Nikolai N. Bogolubov. National Academy of Sciences, accessed May 1, 2018 .
- ^ Mathematics Genealogy Project
- ↑ ^{a } ^{b } ^{c } Nikolai Bogolyubov on the WarHeroes website. Retrieved June 18, 2018 (Russian).
- ↑ ^{a } ^{b } Nikolai Bogolyubov on the official website of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved June 18, 2018 (Russian).
- ↑ Minor Planet Circ. 67760
- ^ NN Bogolyubov gold medal. Russian Золотая медаль имени Н.Н. Боголюбова . Russian Academy of Sciences, accessed May 1, 2018 (Russian).
personal data | |
---|---|
SURNAME | Bogolyubov, Nikolai Nikolajewitsch |
ALTERNATIVE NAMES | Боголюбов, Николай Николаевич (Cyrillic) |
BRIEF DESCRIPTION | Soviet theoretical physicist and mathematician |
DATE OF BIRTH | August 21, 1909 |
PLACE OF BIRTH | Nizhny Novgorod |
DATE OF DEATH | February 13, 1992 |
Place of death | Moscow |