|Voivodeship :||Lesser Poland|
|Geographic location :|
|Residents :||2447 (2007)|
|Postal code :||38-247|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 14|
|License plate :||KTA|
The place is on the brook Olszynka in Pogórze Ciężkowickie , south of the Brzanka ridge (534 m). The neighboring towns are Szerzyny in the east, Rożnowice , Racławice and Binarowa in the south, Olszyny in the west, and Żurowa and Swoszowa in the north.
According to the founding privilege of King Casimir the Great , signed in Biecz on August 7, 1349, the place in Olpina was established by the commissioned brothers Iohanni et alteri Iohanni according to Magdeburg law with a parish church, a slaughterhouse, mills and cobblers' shops, blacksmiths, and Fischer founded. According to Kazimierz Rymut , the name is derived from the personal name of the presumably first settler Ołpa , but Marcin Wojciech Solarz does not agree with him and uses the original name from the singular Ołpina , which refers to the possible topographical origin in the form Łobin (o) - analogous to the name Ołbin (formerly also Olpinov ), the district of Wroclaw - indicates (a swampy, damp space / place in a river valley - in the founding privilege villam in Olpina in fluuio dicto Swepietnica ), but was possibly due to the German language of Łobino in Ołpino ( Metatheses ol↔lo and b↔p) reshaped and pluralized in the 15th century (Ołpin-y).
Kurt Lück called the village a German settlement. But his criteria were very generous and tendentious. Marcin Wojciech Solarz claims that the participation of the probably not numerous settlers of German origin in the settlement of the Olszynka Valley in the middle of the 14th century is visible and that it left permanent traces or indications in the onomastics (Ołpiny and Żurowa), but that this question needs more research.
From 1386 the village of Olpyn (with the neighboring Święcany , Szerzyny and Olszyny) belonged to the aristocratic Melsztyński family, based in Melsztyn , administratively to the Kingdom of Poland (from 1569 aristocratic republic of Poland-Lithuania ), Cracow Voivodeship , Biecz District . Around 1600 the village had over 200 inhabitants.
Thanks to the settlement of Jews from the late 18th century onwards, Ołpiny acquired the character of a town, and before 1918 it was sometimes referred to as Markt Ołpiny , but was never formally elevated to a town. In 1900 the municipality had an area of 1866 hectares, with 497 houses and 2955 inhabitants, of whom all residents were Polish-speaking, except for Roman Catholics there were 348 Jews, which was the third largest in terms of the number of Jewish communities (after Jasło and Nowy Żmigród ) Jasło district was.
In 1918, after the end of the First World War and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Ołpiny came to Poland. This was only interrupted by the occupation of Poland by the Wehrmacht in World War II .
A synagogue was built there in the interwar period, devastated in World War II and demolished in 2011.
From 1975 to 1998 Ołpiny was part of the Tarnów Voivodeship .
In 1992 Ołpiny became the seat of a deanery of the Tarnów diocese .
- Military cemeteries # 34 and # 35 from World War I
- Jewish Cemetery
- St. Mary's Church with an important painting from the Kraków School of the Mary's Family
- Andrzej Matuszczyk: Pogórze Karpackie . Oddział PTTK "Ziemi Tarnowskiej", Tarnów 1995, ISBN 83-903260-1-9 , p. 290 (Polish).
- MW Solarz, 2016, p. 68.
- MW Solarz, 2016, pp. 60–71.
- German settlement of Malopolska and Rotreussens in the 15th century . Edited u. drawn by Kurt Lück, 1934.
- Wojciech Blajer, Uwagi o stanie badań nad enklawami średniowiecznego osadnictwa niemieckiego między Wisłoką i Sanem [remarks on the status of research on the enclaves of medieval German settlement between Wisłoka and Sanzes ], [in: 2007 ] Późne Kar, Karzeszcze 64-65.
- MW Solarz, 2016, pp. 71, 74, 78.
- Jacek Laber Shek: Posiadłości Melsztyńskich w okolicach Melsztyna
- Henryk Rutkowski (editor), Krzysztof Chłapkowski: Województwo krakowskie w drugiej połowie XVI wieku; Cz. 2, Komentarz, indeksy . Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2008, p. 78, 82 (Polish, online ).
- Ludwig Patryn (Ed.): Community encyclopedia of the kingdoms and countries represented in the Reichsrat, edited on the basis of the results of the census of December 31, 1900, XII. Galicia . Vienna 1907 ( online ).
- Marcin Wojciech Solarz: Nazwy wsi źródłem wiedzy o przeszłości na przykładzie toponimów z doliny Olszynki na Pogórzu Ciężkowickim . [Village names as a source of knowledge of the past: toponyms in the Olszynka Valley in the Ciężkowickie Foothills]. In: Acta Universitatis Lodziensis . Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica. No. 25 , 2016, ISSN 1508-1117 , p. 63–81 , doi : 10.18778 / 1508-1117.25.04 (Polish, online ).
- Ołpiny Górne i Dolne z Rudnikiem . In: Filip Sulimierski, Władysław Walewski (eds.): Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich . tape 7 : Netrebka – Perepiat . Walewskiego, Warsaw 1886, p. 525 (Polish, edu.pl ).
- Ołpiny . In: Filip Sulimierski, Władysław Walewski (eds.): Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich . tape 15 , part 2: Januszpol – Wola Justowska . Walewskiego, Warsaw 1902, p. 409 (Polish, edu.pl ).