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Lower Taimyra
Нижняя Таймыра
The catchment area of ​​the Taimyra with Lake Taimyr

The catchment area of ​​the Taimyra with Lake Taimyr

Water code RU17030000112116100139625
location Taimyr Peninsula , Siberia , Krasnoyarsk Region ( Russia )
River system Taimyra
origin Discharge from Lake Taimyr
74 ° 54 ′ 42 ″  N , 100 ° 30 ′ 48 ″  E
muzzle in Taimyrgolf ( Kara Sea ) Coordinates: 76 ° 6 ′ 40 ″  N , 99 ° 47 ′ 20 ″  E, 76 ° 6 ′ 40 ″  N , 99 ° 47 ′ 20 ″  E
Mouth height m

length 187 km 
with Upper Taimyra (567 km) and
flowing stretch in Lake Taimyr (86 km):

840 km
Catchment area 124,000 km²
Drain MQ
1220 m³ / s
Left tributaries Schrenk
Right tributaries Trautfetter
Flowing lakes Taimyrsee , Engelhardtsee
Upper Taimyra
Верхняя Таймыра
Water code RU17030000112116100143165
location Taimyr Peninsula , Siberia , Krasnoyarsk Region ( Russia )
River system Taimyra
Drain over Lower Taimyra → Arctic Ocean
origin Union of the first and second head of the Taimyra in the Byrranga Mountains
74 ° 9 ′ 5 ″  N , 94 ° 7 ′ 56 ″  E
Source height approx.  150  m
muzzle into Taimyrsee
74 ° 21 ′ 20 ″  N , 100 ° 5 ′ 26 ″  E

length 499 km 
with one of its source rivers (68 km each):
567 km
Catchment area 50,400 km²
Left tributaries First head of the Taimyra (spring river) ; Kyida, Deptumala, Fadjukuda, Great Bootankaga
Right tributaries Second head of the Taimyra (spring river) ; Ajatari, Luktach, Gorbita, Logata

The Taimyra ( Russian Таймыра ; also called Taimyr ), consisting of Upper Taimyra (567 km long) and Lower Taimyra (187 km), is a 840 km (without the flow section in the Taimyr Sea 754 km) long river and at the same time a tributary of the Kara Sea ( Arctic Ocean ) on the Taimyr Peninsula , in the north of the Krasnoyarsk region , Siberia and the Asian part of Russia .

Upper Taimyra

Water code number (GKZ): 17030000112116100143165


As the Upper Taimyra ( Верхняя Таймыра ; Verkhnyaya Taimyra), which is 499 km long and 567 km long together with one of its 68 km long source rivers, the river arises about 850 km north of the Arctic Circle in the central part of the 1125  m high Byrranga Mountains from the Union of two source rivers: the first head of the Taimyra ( Первая Голова Таймыры ; Perwaja Golowa Taimyry) on the left and the second head of the Taimyra ( Вторая Голова Таймыры , Wtoraja Golowa Taimyry) on the right. From there it initially flows, leaving the mountains and rapidly losing height, to the south-south-west, and then in the Taimyr Depression , the central part of the North Siberian lowlands , turns first to the east and then to the north-east and flows into the large Taimyr Sea.

Catchment area and tributaries

The catchment area of the Upper Taimyra is about 50,400 km². The tributaries of the Upper Taimyra include: Ajatari , Luktach , Gorbita , Logata (from right) and Kyida , Deptumala , Fadjukuda , Great Bootankaga (left). In addition, Bikada-Nguoma , Jamutarida , Kalamissamo , Ledjanaja , Olenja , Sapadnaja and Ugolnaja flow into Lake Taimyr .

Lower Taimyra

Water code number (GKZ): 17030000112116100139625


As the Lower Taimyra ( Нижняя Таймыра ; Nizhnyaya Taimyra), which is 187 km long, the river leaves Lake Taimyr about 960 km north of the Arctic Circle, in which it has covered 86 km of flow, at the northern end of the northwest arm, to shortly afterwards through the small one Engelhardtsee to flow. It crosses the Byrranga Mountains, flowing a little north, and then the lowlands in the north of the Taimyr Peninsula, and then flows into the Taimyr Gulf in the eastern part of the Kara Sea , a marginal sea of ​​the Arctic Ocean .

Catchment area and tributaries

The catchment area of the Lower Taymyr River is without the Upper Taymyr River km² about 73,600 and with that of the Upper Taymyr River approximately 124,000 square kilometers. The tributaries of the Lower Taimyra include Trautfetter from the right and Schrenk from the left, the latter being fed by the Mamonta ( mammoth river ). In addition, Chornyje Jary and Severnaya flow into the outermost north-western part of Lake Taimyr, which is usually referred to as Lower Taimyra on maps .

Climate, hydrology, flora and fauna

Taimyra is covered by ice from around mid-September to June . When the permafrost thaws in summer and the ice and snow melt, strong floods often occur . The mean annual discharge  (MQ) is 1,220 m³ / s.

By the Tundra with typical vegetation of mosses and lichens extending Taymyr River is rich in fish and habitat, among others, small whitefish and Omulen .


Discovered by Europeans and was first investigated the Taymyr River during the Great Northern Expedition in the years 1737 to 1742. In addition, the Russian polar explorers arrived Semyon Chelyuskin (around 1700-1764) and Chariton Laptev (1700-1763), which was then a journey from the eastern Chatanga along the coast of the Taimyr Peninsula to the western Pyasina River undertook, in the spring of 1741 to the Taimyramündung; they reached the northernmost point of the Taimyr peninsula (known today as Cape Chelyuskin ) and described the coast of the peninsula with the estuary.

Much later, the Taimyra was during the expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1842-1845), which led to northern and eastern Siberia (including Taimyr Peninsula, coasts of the Sea of Okhotsk and Amur ) by the German-Baltic explorer and zoologist Alexander Theodor von Middendorff (1815–1894) examined and described in the summer of 1843 from the origin to the mouth.

The autochthonous Nenze , Dolgan and partly Yakut population of the area settled or nomadized in the times of Laptews and Middendorff downriver only to the western and southern shores of Lake Taimyr, since the vegetation period in the areas north of the lake, along the Lower Taimyra through the Byrranga Mountains to the sea coast, is too short to feed their reindeer herds sufficiently.

Individual references and sources

  1. a b c d e f Lower Taimyra in the State Water Register of Russia (Russian)
  2. a b c d e Article Taimyra in the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (BSE) , 3rd edition 1969–1978 (Russian)http: //vorlage_gse.test/1%3D108499~2a%3D~2b%3DTaimyra
  3. a b Topographic map (1: 200.000, Bl. S-46-XVII, XVIII, Ed. 1986), origin of Upper Taimyra in the Byrranga Mountains on maps46.narod.ru
  4. a b c d e f g Upper Taimyra in the State Water Register of Russia (Russian)
  5. Topographic map (1: 1,000,000, p. S-47,48, ed. 1986), Taimyra u. a. with the Byrranga Mountains, Upper Taimyra (diagonal left), Taimyrsee (center), Engelhardtsee above, Lower Taimyra (above), Taimyrsenke (below) and Chatanga (diagonally below right) on maps47.narod.ru
  6. Topographic map (1: 500.000, p. Т-47,48-В, Г, edition 1989), mouth of the Lower Taimyra into the Kara Sea (Arctic Ocean) and the like. a. with the northern part of the Taimyr Peninsula on mapt4748.narod.ru
  7. Alexander Theodor von Middendorff : On sledge, boat and reindeer back . FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1953, p. 133 f .