forget Me Not
|forget Me Not|
Forest forget-me-nots ( Myosotis sylvatica )
Forget-me-not ( Myosotis ) is a plant genus of the family of Borage Family (Boraginaceae). Varieties of some species are used as ornamental plants . The popular name probably comes from a German saga from the Middle Ages, according to which the little plant asked God not to forget it, and is translated into numerous other languages, such as Forget-me-not in English, as Ne m'oubliez pas in French or as 勿忘 我 ( Wùwàngwǒ ) in Chinese.
The forget-me-not species are annual or perennial herbaceous plants . The stems are usually elongated. The aboveground parts of the plant are short hairy or hairless. The alternate leaves are entire and usually hairy.
Generative traits, pollination and dispersal biology
The flowers are usually in paired coils . They have little or no bracts . The peduncle is elongated after flowering. The flowers are radial symmetry and five-fold with a double perianth . The five sepals are fused together like a bell or funnel. The calyx is regularly five-lobed and in some species enlarges after the flowering period. The five-fold, mostly saucer-shaped, rarely bell-shaped to funnel-shaped crown is fused at the base. The petals are blue to violet, rarely yellow, white or pink, and in the bud position they are unidirectionally twisted to cover each other: they show sinistrors-contorte estivation - in contrast to the situation in Gedenkemein . The five gullet scales are bare, yellow or white. The five stamens, like the stylus, usually do not protrude from the corolla tube. The anthers are egg-shaped to elliptical. The scar is heady. The flowers are usually hermaphroditic and homogamous. Some species also produce purely female, gynodiacally distributed flowers, that is, there are plants with hermaphroditic and plants with purely female flowers. Pollinators are diptera , hymenoptera and butterflies . Self-pollination is possible. Many small-flowered species produce self-fertilizing ( autogamous ) flowers.
The four partial fruits of the Klausenfrucht are broadly lanceolate to ovate in outline, upright, more or less flattened and usually angular. The surface of the partial fruits is smooth and shiny, of brownish, black or rarely greenish color. Sometimes an elaiosome is also formed. The spread of the partial fruits takes place through various mechanisms: The protruding hairy calyx can stick to animals ( epizoochory ), the species with elaiosomes are spread by ants ( myrmecochory ). Endozoochory or spread by the wind ( anemochory ) are rare .
The genus Myosotis is common in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America. In South America only Myosotis albiflora occurs in the extreme south.
Myosotis comes from the Greek and means "mouse ear". Pliny used it to describe a species of plant that cannot be identified in detail with leaves similar to mouse ears. It is commonly assumed that Carl von Linné , who gave the genus its name, was guided by systematic points of view and was reminded of mouse ears when looking at the forget-me-not leaves. This thesis is questioned by botanists such as Helmut Genaust , because, in his opinion, the leaves are clearly spatulate to linear in shape and in no way resemble mouse ears. Linnaeus must therefore have taken the name from the vernacular from another family of plants.
The German plant name "Vergissmeinnicht" has been attested since the 15th century . According to Friedrich Kluge , the name derives from an old tradition : Because the blue flowers are reminiscent of the eyes of people who have just fallen in love, according to popular belief , forget-me-nots were often given away as a token of love and loyalty, usually from man to woman. This is why the name Fridiles auga ("eye of the beloved") is found in Old High German scripts as a plant name. However, the name "forget-me-not" was used earlier for the plant species Veronica chamaedrys ("germander speedwell"). The reason for this was the rapid perishability of the flowers and their easy breaking off, which was compared with the faithlessness that was said to be of men. Conversely, it is also narrated that the flowers should remind the woman of her lover and her promised loyalty. Forget-me-nots and honorary prizes were also called “loyal to men” in earlier times (today the plant species is called Lobelia erinus ). Other common names are "frog eyes" and "cat's eye", the latter in turn rather means the speedwell.
The genus Myosotis belongs to the tribe Myosotideae in the subfamily Boraginoideae within the family of Boraginaceae . There are around 50 Myosotis species worldwide , 41 of which are also found in Europe.
The species found in Central Europe are:
- Alpine forget-me-nots ( Myosotis alpestris F.W.Schmidt ; including Myosotis ambigens (Béguinot) gray )
- Field forget-me-nots ( Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill )
- Lying down forget-me-not ( Myosotis decumbens host ): Home is Europe and North Africa.
- Colorful forget-me-nots ( Myosotis discolor Pers. )
- Lawn forget-me-nots ( Myosotis laxa loam ; incl. Myosotis caespitosa C.F. Schulz with syn .: Myosotis lusitanica Schuster )
- Grove forget-me-nots ( Myosotis nemorosa Bess. )
- Hill forget-me-nots ( Myosotis ramosissima Rochel ex Schult. )
- Lake Constance forget-me-nots ( Myosotis rehsteineri Wartmann )
Swamp forget-me-nots ( Myosotis scorpioides L. , Syn .: Myosotis palustris Hill ); with the subspecies:
- Large-flowered forget-me-not ( Myosotis scorpioides subsp. Praecox (Hülph.) Dickoré , Syn .: Myosotis praecox Hülph. )
- Scattered forget-me-nots ( Myosotis sparsiflora Mikan ): It occurs in Europe and the Middle East.
- Narrow-leaf forget-me-not ( Myosotis stenophylla Knaf ): It occurs in Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine and Turkey.
- Sand forget-me-nots ( Myosotis stricta Link ex Roem. & Schult. )
- Forest forget-me-nots ( Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm .; Syn .: Myosotis popovii Dobroc .; Myosotis pyrenaica Pourret )
The other species found in Europe and the Mediterranean are:
- Myosotis amoena (Rupr.) Boiss. : The homeland is Armenia, Georgia and Turkey.
- Myosotis asiatica (Vestergren) Schischkin & Serg. : It occurs in Europe in Russia.
- Myosotis atlantica Vestergren : The home is Morocco.
- Myosotis azorica H.C. Watson : The home is the Azores.
- Myosotis balbisiana Jordan : Home is Portugal, Spain and France.
- Myosotis cadmea Boiss. : The homeland is Bulgaria, Greece, the former Yugoslavia and Turkey.
- Myosotis congesta R.J. Shuttlew. : The homeland is Portugal, Spain, France, Corsica, Sicily, Crete, the Aegean Sea, North Africa and the Middle East.
- Myosotis corsicana (Fiori) gray : The home is Corsica.
- Myosotis debilis Pomel : The home is Portugal, Spain, Algeria and Morocco.
- Myosotis diminuta Riedl : It occurs in Turkey.
- Myosotis gallica Vestergren : The home is France.
- Myosotis heteropoda Trautv. : It occurs in Armenia, Georgia and Turkey.
- Myosotis incrassata cast. : The homeland is Italy, Sicily, the Balkan Peninsula, the Aegean Sea, Cyprus, Turkey and the Ukraine.
- Myosotis lamottiana (Br.-Bl.) gray : It occurs in the mountains of Spain and France.
- Myosotis latifolia Poiret : The homeland are the Azores, the Canaries and Algeria.
- Myosotis lazica M.Popov : The home is Georgia and Turkey.
- Myosotis lithospermifolia (Willd.) Hornem. : It occurs in Armenia, Georgia, Turkey and Ukraine.
- Myosotis litoralis Fischer : The home is Greece, Ukraine and Turkey.
- Myosotis macrosiphon Font Quer & Maire : The home is Morocco and the Middle East.
- Myosotis minutiflora Boiss. & Reuter : The home is Spain, France, Greece, Bulgaria and the Ukraine.
- Myosotis olympica Boiss. : The homeland is Bulgaria and Turkey.
- Myosotis persoonii Rouy : The home is Portugal and Spain.
- Myosotis platyphylla Boiss. : The home is Turkey.
- Myosotis propinqua (Turc.) A.DC. : It occurs in Algeria, Armenia, Georgia and Turkey.
- Myosotis pusilla Loisel. : The homeland is Corsica, Sardinia, Algeria and Tunisia.
- Myosotis refracta Boiss. : It occurs in southern Europe, in the Aegean and in the Middle East.
- Myosotis ruscinonensis Rouy (also referred to as subspecies ruscinonensis (Rouy) O. Bolòs & Vigo to Myosotis ramosissima ): The home is France.
- Myosotis secunda A. Murray : It is native to southern Europe, western Europe, northwestern Europe and the Mediterranean area with North Africa, plus Madeira, the Azores and the Middle East.
- Myosotis sicula cast. : The home is southern Europe and the Middle East.
- Myosotis as long as Greuter & Zaffran : It is endemic to Crete.
- Myosotis soleirolii Godron : The home is Corsica and Sardinia.
- Myosotis speluncicola (Boiss.) Rouy : It occurs in France, Italy, Croatia and Turkey.
- Myosotis stolonifera (DC.) Leresche & Levier : The home is Portugal, Spain and Great Britain.
- Myosotis suaveolens Willd. : The homeland is Croatia, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria.
- Myosotis tuxeniana (O.Bolós & Vigo) O.Bolós & Vigo : It occurs only in Spain.
- Myosotis ucrainica Czern. : The homeland is Ukraine, Armenia and Russia.
- Myosotis welwitschii Boiss. & Reuter : The home is Portugal, Spain and Morocco.
Other types (selection):
- Myosotis australis R.Br. : The homeland is Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea.
- Myosotis bothriospermoides Kitagawa : The home is China (Hebei).
- Myosotis cameroonensis Cheek & R. Becker : It occurs in Africa (Cameroon).
- Myosotis keniensis T.CEFries : It occurs in Africa.
- Myosotis krylovii Sergievskaja : The home is Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and China (Xinjiang).
- Myosotis pulvinaris Hook.f. : It was first described from New Zealand.
- Myosotis robusta D.Don : It occurs in Nepal.
- Myosotis verna Nutt. : It occurs in North America.
Varieties of some species are used as an ornamental plant in parks and gardens. Up until the 19th century there was practically no distinction between the individual species. Since the 16th century, the swamp forget-me-not, more rarely the field forget-me-not, has been depicted. In the older writings, the forget-me-not is always referred to as a wild plant. Forget-me-nots were grown as garden ornamental plants in England and Germany from around 1830. The so-called garden forget-me-not has its origin in the forest forget-me-not ( Myosotis sylvatica ). A number of varieties have emerged since the second half of the 19th century.
- The forget-me-not is a symbol of tender memories as well as a farewell in love. The forget-me-not has a name with the same meaning in many languages. Corresponding legends are often included.
- The forget-me-not was a symbol of Freemasonry in the time of National Socialism , wearing an official badge of any community was forbidden by law in the course of the Gleichschaltung . In 1948 the forget-me-not was worn by the United Grand Lodges of Germany as a Masonic emblem at the first annual meeting. This symbol is still used today by Freemasons.
- The bloom of the forget-me-not serves as a stylized reminder of the German war dead of the First World War. The Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge e. V. uses it in this sense with its logo in the center. In the former British Dominion Newfoundland , the forget-me-not was a symbol of the memory of the war dead. In the meantime it has been replaced by the common red poppy ("Poppy") in the Commonwealth . Armenians use the forget-me-not in memory of the victims of the Armenian genocide .
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