Cinnamon-brown skin head
|Cinnamon-brown skin head|
Cinnamon-brown skin head ( Cortinarius cinnamomeus )
|( L. ) Gray (1821)|
The cinnamon-brown skin head ( Cortinarius cinnamomeus , syn .: Dermocybe cinnamomea ) is a leaf fungus from the family of the veil relatives (Cortinariaceae). The small to medium-sized head of skin has a fibrous to small-scale, more or less cinnamon-brown hat and bright orange-colored lamellae when young. The stem, cortina and meat are more or less clearly colored yellow. The veil is often found in young spruce or pine forests, the fruiting bodies appear from July to October. It is common in most of Europe and quite common. Its distribution area extends far into the north Boreal climatic zone. The veil, also known as the cinnamon or cinnamon yellow skin head , is inedible like all skin heads.
The hat is 3–7 (9) cm wide, hemispherical to arched when young, later flatter, mostly blunt, but also hunched to a point. The surface of the hat, which is particularly silky-fibrous or finely flaky and later bald, is colored yellow to cinnamon and tinted ocher or olive. The middle of the hat is usually more red-brown, the edge of the hat more ocher-brown.
The wide slats are bulging and are crowded. They are very variable in color from initially bright orange to later cinnamon brown, the edges are colored lighter yellow. The spore powder is rusty brown.
The stem is 4–6 (–8) cm long and about 0.8 cm wide. It is yellowish and often has a more or less distinct olive tint towards the base. Sometimes it can also be zoned with brown fibers. The inside of the stem is filled in when young and mostly hollow with age. The velum or the remains of cortine on the stem are yellowish in color.
The flesh is bright yellow, although the base of the stem is often more cloudy in color. It smells faintly grassy or beet-like and tastes more or less mild.
The elliptical, fine black to almost smooth spores measure 7–9 × 4.5–5 µm, the basidia 25 × 5–7 µm.
There are a number of similar skin heads that can be confused with the cinnamon brown skin head. As numerous, incorrectly named entries in the gene bank prove, there are numerous incorrect determinations even among experts, since the morphological and genetic differences between the species are minimal and the species are still insufficiently differentiated from one another. The common and very variable saffron-leaved skin head ( Cortinarius croceus ) looks very similar. The closely related species has lively yellow to pale saffron-colored lamellae, which contrast with the darker, olive-brown hat, and smells of iodine.
Also closely related is the yellow-leaved cinnamon skin head ( C. cinnamomeoluteus ), which has yellow to cinnamon-brown lamellae. The main difference is the location. The skin head grows in damp places on alder and willow trees.
The orange-rimmed skin head ( C. malicorius ) has (saffron) orange lamellae. It is characterized by its striking two-tone hat, with the bright orange-yellow edge and the darker brown center. The cap and stem of ripe fruit bodies are overall darker and the narrow, almost spindle-shaped spores are smaller (5.5–6 × 3.5–4 µm). The skin head grows preferentially on sandy or boggy soils in moist, colline or montane spruce or pine forests.
The similar orange-leaved skin head ( C. sommerfeltii ) never has bright orange-colored lamellae and is smaller. Overall, it is characterized by the dull colors and the dark brown hat, which is often concentrically zoned. The orange-leaved skin head grows in older pine forests.
Ecology and diffusion
The veil is distributed almost over the entire northern hemisphere and occurs in Asia (Japan, China), North America (USA, Canada) and Europe. In Europe, the fungus is widespread in the south, from the Iberian Peninsula in the southwest to the Ukraine in the southeast. In Northern Europe you can find it in Norway to the North Cape and in Sweden to Lapland. It is widespread but not common in the UK, but quite common in the Netherlands. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, too, the cinnamon-brown skin head is one of the most common veils.
The skin head usually grows in coniferous forests, especially in spruce and pine, but is also found in birch. But it was also found in oak forests, provided that there is no confusion with closely related species.
The Latin epithet “cinnamomeus” means cinnamon-colored or cinnamon-brown and refers to the more or less cinnamon-brown hat.
The cinnamon-brown skin head was already described by Carl von Linné as Agaricus cinnamomeus . This name was sanctioned by Elias M. Fries in 1821 . In the same year, the British naturalist SF Gray placed the species as Cortinaria cinnamomea in the genus Cortinarius . Even if Gray used the feminine form of the generic name, the species was validly recombined by him. EM Fries, who is often named as the author, did not recombine it until 1838. In addition to the scientific species name, there are numerous homotypical synonyms such as: Flammula cinnamomea (L.) Kummer (1871), Gomphos cinnamomeus (L.) Kuntze (1898) and Dermocybe cinnamomea (L.) Wünsche (1877). They are evidence of the numerous attempts to split the species-rich genus Cortinarius into smaller genera.
Sequencing of the ITS region of the rRNA gene has shown that Cortinarius subcroceofolius Ammirati & AH Sm., Collected and described in Michigan in 1972 , and Cortinarius fervidoides Bidaud , Moënne-Locc, collected in France (Isère) and described in 1994 . & Reumaux are synonyms, as the holotypes of the two species do not differ from the neotype of the cinnamon-brown skin head.
Especially when reading older literature, one should keep in mind that the name was not always used in today's sense. Thus Dermocybe cinnamomea within the meaning of A. crocheted and Cortinarius cinnamomeus as defined in G. Bresadola synonymously with the very similar Safranblättrigen skin head ( C. croceus ).
The ITS sequence analyzes also show that the cinnamon-brown skin head belongs to the Croceus complex. The ITS2 sequences of these species differ by less than 1.5%. The cinnamon-brown skin head shows more than 99 percent similarity (percent identity in the blast analysis) to C. polaris ( bronze skin head ), C. sylvae-norvegicae , C. croceus ( saffron-leaved skin head ) and C. zakii . The bronze skin head has an arctic-alpine distribution and occurs in Norway, Svalbard and Alaska. But it was also found in the German Alps. C. sylvae-norvegicae is a boreal to north boreal species that can be found in the birch and spruce forests of Scandinavia, and C. zakii is a North American species that is very close to the saffron-leaved skin head. Also very closely related are C. holoxanthus ( all-yellow skin head ), C. huronensis ( brown-hatched swamp skin head ), C. incognitus and C. thiersii with over 98% similarity. The latter two are purely North American species. Within the Croceus complex, the cinnamon-brown skin head together with the yellow-leaved cinnamon skin head ( C. cinnamomeoluteus ) and the copper-red bog skin head ( C. uliginosus ) form a lineage ( clade ).
Systematic classification within the genre
The cinnamon-brown skin head is placed in the sub-genus Dermocybe and within the sub-genus in the section Dermocybe ( Cinnamomei ). The representatives have yellow, orange, green, but never red slats.
Molecular phylogenetic studies by YJ Liu and his co-authors have shown that the section Dermocybe forms a monophylum within the genus / subgenus Dermocybe and is clearly separated from the sections Malicoriae and Sanguineae .
Like all skin heads, the cinnamon brown skin head is not an edible mushroom. Due to their laxative effect, which is due to the high content of anthraquinone derivatives, skin heads are usually classified as toxic. Anthraquinones are a class of natural substances that are formally derived from anthraquinone . They are also found in rhubarb roots and buckthorn bark , for example , which are used as herbal laxatives. The main reason not to use skin heads as edible mushrooms is their close resemblance to the sometimes very poisonous rock heads . In the case of the orange fox ( Cortinarius orellanus ), poisoning can be fatal in the worst case.
Use as coloring mushrooms
The high content of anthraquinone dyes , which can sometimes make up several percent of the dry matter, makes the heads of the skin very good coloring fungi. In Scandinavia in particular, they are often used to dye wool. With the dyes contained in the cinnamon skin head, pink to orange shades can be achieved. In order for the dye to adhere to the wool, it must be stained with alum or other aluminum salts.
The main pigments of the cinnamon-brown head of the skin are flavomannin-6.6'-dimethylether (FDM) (lemon yellow to greenish yellow) together with anhydroflavomannin-9.10-quinone-6.6'-dimethylether (yellow) and other oxidation products (yellow to yellow-brown), as well as the two anthraquinone carboxylic acids dermolutein (yellow) and dermorubin (purple-pink). In a small amount were also 5-Chlorodermorubin (purplish) endocrocin (yellow), and the corresponding Anthrachinoncarbonsäure- glycosides detected. The closely related species C. cinnamomeoluteus , C. croceus and C. uliginosus also have almost identical pigment compositions.
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