Municipality of Chalkida
|Region :||Central Greece|
|Regional District :||Euboea|
|Geographic coordinates :||38 ° 28 ' N , 23 ° 36' E|
|Area :||412.38 km²|
|Residents :||102,223 (2011)|
|Population density :||247.9 inhabitants / km²|
|LAU-1 code no .:|
|Districts :||5 municipal districts|
|Local self-government :||
7 city districts |
7 local communities
|Location in the Central Greece region|
Chalkida ( modern Greek Χαλκίδα Chalkída ( f. Sg. ), Pronunciation : [ xalˈkʲiða ]), formerly also called Chalkis ( ancient Greek Χαλκίς Chalkís ), is the capital of the Greek island of Euboea . As a municipality in the Central Greece region , it extends on both sides of the narrow Euripos strait with two municipal districts on the mainland and three on the central west coast of the island.
Already since 411 BC, the Euripus led to A bridge that connected Chalkis to the mainland. A special feature of this strait is that the sea flowing under the bridge changes its direction of flow every six hours. Another special feature is that it in the bay of Halkida tide of ebb and flood are.
Chalkis was originally a settlement of Phoenician purple fishermen . Trade flourished here early on and the Chalkidiki peninsula , which derives its name from Chalkis , was colonized . But the colonization efforts also extended to Lower Italy and Sicily . The most famous foundings include Pithekoussai and Cumae .
In the 7th century BC Chr. Chalkis led the protracted and finally victorious Lelantischen war against the neighboring city Eretria for the supremacy on Euboea. 506 BC Chr. Chalkis was then subjugated by the Athenians , who divided the lands of the island's nobility among the 4000 families. Pericles foiled an attempt to shake off the rule of Athens only in 411 BC. Chr. Chalkis could break free. But they entered as early as 378 BC. Again in the second Attic sea alliance until the Macedonians 338 BC. BC brought the whole island under their rule.
As a fortress and trading town, Chalkis remained important through ancient times and throughout the Middle Ages . Under the Ottomans, the pasha for eastern central Greece sat here. From 1899 to 2010 Chalkida was the administrative seat of the Euboea prefecture . Chalcis in Graecia is a titular bishopric of the Catholic Church.
Chalkis has the oldest continuously existing Jewish community in Europe, which has existed since ancient times and belongs to the group of Greek-speaking Romaniots . During the Second World War , 305 out of 327 parishioners were saved thanks to the help of their Christian neighbors . Today the congregation still has 66 members.
In 1993 the new second bridge was opened, which connects Chalkida and the island of Evia to the mainland. In 2002, the Women's Wrestling World Championships took place in Chalkida.
- The Greek philosopher Aristotle died in 322 BC. In Chalkida, the birthplace of his mother.
- The grammarian and poet Lycophron from Chalkis (around 290/250 BC) probably comes from the city.
- The composer Nikos Skalkottas was born in Chalkida in 1904 . He died in Athens in 1949 .
- The Greek politician and former Prime Minister Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos (1851–1927) was born in Chalkida.
- Mardochaos Frizis (1893-1940), colonel in the Greek armed forces, fell on the Albanian front on December 5, 1940, as the first senior Greek officer.
- Angelos Basinas (* 1976), Greek football player
|1991||51,646 (city), 60,646 (urban settlement area)|
City partnership and city friendship
A town partnership with Brühl has existed since 1999 .
Since 2000 there has also been a friendship between cities with Menden .
Since 2011 there has been a city partnership with the island of Salamis in Greece.
In 1992 a multi-lane suspension bridge was completed over the Euripos Canal . It contributes significantly to the improvement of the accessibility of the city of Chalkida and the other parts of the island of Evia. Before the new bridge was opened, there was only a small bascule bridge at the narrowest point of the strait, which - located in the middle of the city - represented the main connection between the island of Evia and the central Greek mainland.
Chalkida has no outstanding attraction and is seen by tourists as a transit station to the island of Evia. Nevertheless, there are some sights that are mainly located in the southern (older) part of the city. Above all, there are:
- The church of Agia Paraskevi was temporarily used by Catholics, which explains the Gothic additions. The ribbed vaults were removed except for two smaller ones during the Ottoman period, as the building was used as a warehouse. After the founding of the Greek state, the building became a place of worship again and the iconostasis was carried out in a classical style.
- The Emir Zade Mosque is not far from the church and is now used by archaeologists. In front of it there is an Ottoman fountain for ritual washing.
- The small archaeological museum is right in the center. It shows only a few finds that indicate the importance of the city as a ceramic producer in ancient times, but some very valuable sculptures from the Hellenistic and Roman times.
- The Roman Aqueduct (Kamares)
- the "Red House" in neoclassical style
- the Karababa Fortress on the mainland side of the city
- the synagogue in Kotsou Street (built in 1855) and the old Jewish cemetery in Odos Ellinon Evräon Martyron (formerly Messapion)
- Official website of Chalkida
- Ludwig Bürchner : Chalkis 1 . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume III, 2, Stuttgart 1899, Sp. 2078-2088.
- ↑ Results of the 2011 census at the National Statistical Service of Greece (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ) ( Memento from June 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (Excel document, 2.6 MB)
- ↑ Partnerships. (No longer available online.) In: bruehl.de. Archived from the original on September 24, 2014 ; Retrieved November 3, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Chalkida (GR). In: menden.de. Retrieved March 24, 2012 .