Common giant umbrella

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Common giant umbrella

Common giant umbrella ( Macrolepiota procera )

Class : Agaricomycetes
Subclass : Agaricomycetidae
Order : Mushroom-like (Agaricales)
Family : Mushroom relatives (Agaricaceae)
Genre : Giant umbrella ( Macrolepiota )
Type : Common giant umbrella
Scientific name
Macrolepiota procera
( Scop  .: Fr. ) Singer

The common giant umbrella , Parasol or giant umbrella mushroom ( Macrolepiota procera ) is a type of mushroom from the family of mushroom relatives (Agaricaceae).


Macroscopic features

The top of the parasol's hat is covered with loose, lumpy and sometimes protruding scales. Another feature is a double-thick stem ring with a double rim.

Young fruit bodies with a closed, spherical hat have a drumstick-like shape. After showing up, the hat reaches a width of 12–30 (–44) cm. A blunt, stepped hump remains in the middle. During the screening, the hat skin tears open, so that medium-sized, loosely distributed and concentrically arranged “scale clods” arise. Due to their dark color, they stand out clearly from the predominantly whitish background and do not extend to the edge. In the middle, the hat surface hardly tears, which means that it remains smooth and dark brown there. The lamellas are initially white, later cream-colored. They are not connected to the stem and can be easily detached from the hat. The spore powder is white to pale. The hollow stem becomes 15–40 cm long and 1–2.5 cm thick. At the base it is bulky and thickened and up to 4–5 cm wide there. After stretching, the stem bark shows brown snaking on a light background along its entire length. The ring ( annulus ) is thick, padded and movable. It is constructed twice and has a running groove. The lower part is scaled brown. The white flesh ( trama ) remains uncolored if injured. It smells faintly mushroom-like or spermatic and tastes a bit nutty.

Microscopic features

The basidia have four spores and a basal buckle . The spores measure 12-18 × 9-11 (12) µm. They are ellipsoidal and very thick-walled. They have a small germ pore and a hyaline cap. The blade edges are sterile. The Cheilo Zystiden are up to 45 (55) × 20 microns in size. They are club-shaped, utriform to pear-shaped. They often consist of two or three cells. The top layer of the hat is formed in the middle of 3.5–10 (14) µm thick, cylindrical hyphae . They are septate and show an intracellular pigment and a thickened wall in places.

Species delimitation

The smaller and inedible pointed-scaly spiny umbrella ( Lepiota aspera ) looks similar and grows in comparable locations. It has a distinct, unpleasant smell (“of luminous gas”) and a hanging, non-movable ring. The very rare poison saffron umbrella ( Chlorophyllum venenatum ) has a non-saddled stem and reddened when injured. The species Chlorophyllum molybdites , which is native to North America but also occurs occasionally in Europe, causes severe gastrointestinal complaints like the previous one. The latter species is believed to be responsible for most of the mushroom poisoning in the United States .

It is particularly difficult to distinguish between close relatives. The Common macrolepiota mastoidea ( M. mastoidea ), which after a few views as M. procera var. Konradii the common Riesenschirmling was inferior, differs by more delicate fruit body, a ring without groove and a weakly genatterten stem. The star-scaly giant umbrella ( M. rhodosperma ) usually forms smaller fruiting bodies. He only has loosely lying, easily removable hat scales, the edges of which often stand out. The slats sometimes have a pink glow. The stem is usually weaker than that of the common giant umbrella. The green spotted giant umbrella ( M. olivascens ) and its f. pseudoolivascens have a greenish discoloring hat. The Nordic giant umbrella ( M. nordica ) has smaller hat scales . Its lamellae are whitish to pink in color and often have a gray-black edge. The stem is almost bare or only slightly but coarser at the base than in the common giant umbrella. The ring is double or complex. The misunderstood teat giant umbrella ( M. prominens ) has a clearly hunched hat with mostly smaller, ocher-colored scales. In this species, the middle of the hat is also scaled. The stem has a fine, more distant snake. The ring is simple or not very complex.

Ecology and phenology

Sometimes giant umbrella mushrooms grow in groups.

The common giant umbrella can be found in almost all mesophilic forest communities as well as on open grassland on loamy, fresh soils. Light beech , oak and oak-hornbeam forests on nutrient-rich subsoil and corresponding spruce forests as well as meadows and pastures, parks, paths and forest edges are preferred. The ecological demands are very similar to those of the wood anemone . The fungus occurs only sporadically on acidic or sandy subsoil and when it is nutrient-rich. It can hardly be found in damp areas. The common giant umbrella is mainly found in middle-aged and older forests. It can be found from the planar to subalpine altitude level .

The common giant umbrella lives saprobion table . The fruiting bodies appear from July to November, occasionally earlier or later. They can be found in Mediterranean Europe as early as May. They appear solitary to gregarious, sometimes in witch rings .


Postage stamp from Azerbaijan (1995) with giant umbrella mushrooms

Due to the frequently occurring ambiguities in the species delimitation in the genus of the giant parapets , the information may contain inaccuracies. The common giant umbrella is distributed from australia to boreal . It has been found in America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. In America the area extends from Canada to Chile. In Africa it can be found in Kenya and Madagascar as well as in North Africa. In Asia, the species is widespread from Siberia and Eastern Russia to Japan and India. In Europe, apart from the arctic regions, it can be found everywhere. In Germany the fungus is widespread and nowhere rare.


External system

There have been numerous rearrangements in the species circle around the common giant umbrella in recent years. Macrolepiota konradii (Huijsman 1943 ex PD Orton 1960) MM Moser 1967 was often placed in this complex, whereby there were also mixtures with the (actual) star-scaly giant umbrella ( M. rhodosperma ). Currently, M. konradii is seen as a synonym for the common teat giant umbrella ( M. mastoidea ). Macrolepiota olivascens f. pseudo-olivascens (Bellù & Lanzoni 1987) Hauskn. & Pidlich-Aigner 2004 used to be a variety of the common giant umbrella.

Internal system

The forms and varieties listed in the following table currently belong to the common giant umbrella.

German name Scientific name and author citation Distinguishing features compared to the type
Gloomy giant umbrella Macrolepiota procera f. fuliginosa (Barla 1888) Vizzini & Contu 2011 The scales on the hat are finer and darkly tinted sepia brown. The stalk is barely fluted and densely covered with very fine flakes. Its surface turns reddish brown after scratching.
Reddening giant umbrella Macrolepiota procera f. permixta (Barla 1888) Vizzini & Contu 2011 The surface of the hat becomes reddish in color when rubbed. The meat turns a distinct orange-red color in the handle.
Macrolepiota procera var. Mediterranea Bon 1993 The hat scales are more or less fleeting. The spores are a little more compact. The variation has so far only been demonstrated in the Mediterranean region.


Origin of name

The name Parasol is an outdated term for "parasol" ( borrowed from French parasol in the 18th century , from Italian para il sole "keep the sun out") and plays on its characteristic shape - a large, umbrella-like hat on a long, slender stem - on.

Food value

Parasol schnitzel in breading

All forms of the common giant umbrella are edible and are considered good edible mushrooms. Usually only hats are used that can be prepared in a similar way to schnitzel . The stems are often tough and not suitable for direct consumption, but can be made into mushroom powder . In very rare cases, nausea and nausea have been reported after consumption.

Edible mushroom of the year 2017

The common giant umbrella was named edible mushroom of the year 2017 as part of the European Mushroom Day.



Individual evidence

  1. Superfund: Huge Parasol discovered - (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 16, 2017 ; accessed on October 15, 2017 .
  2. Dietmar Winterstein: The Grünsporige giant umbrella or the false parasol . In: The Tintling . tape 77 , no. 4 , 2012, p. 21-28 .
  3. Ewald Gerhardt: The great mushroom guide for on the go . BLV, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-405-15147-3 .
  4. a b Gernot Friebes: About the complicated group of saffron and giant parachutes. P. 16 ff.
  5. ^ A b Alfredo Vizzini, Marco Contu, Stefano Ghignone, Else Vellinga: A new volvate Macrolepiota (Agaricomycetes, Agaricales) from Italy, with observations on the M. procera complex . In: Mycotaxon . tape 117 , no. 1 (July – September), November 22, 2011, pp. 149-164 , doi : 10.5248 / 117.149 .
  6. Erhard Ludwig: Mushroom Compendium. P. 577.
  7. Erhard Ludwig: Mushroom Compendium. P. 589.
  8. Erhard Ludwig: Mushroom Compendium. P. 576.
  9. ^ Konradin Medien GmbH, Leinfelden-Echterdingen: Where does Parasol come from | Work origin of Parasol | Retrieved June 23, 2018 .
  10. Karin Montag: Mushroom of the year 2017 is the Parasol. Retrieved June 12, 2016 .

Web links

Commons : Common giant umbrella ( Macrolepiota procera )  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Parasol  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations