In the wholesale market, wholesale takes place in market form . In contrast to all other types of events ( weekly market , fair ), a wholesale market can be operated as a permanent permanent establishment. In order to keep the effects of the weather away from the market , wholesale markets have been held in market halls since the 18th century , the large-scale wholesale market halls specially designed for wholesale markets . Their construction ( construction ) can be designed in the form of a hall or a pavilion .
Wholesale markets developed from the medieval small markets. As the cities grew, there was a need to set up wholesale markets in order to be able to supply larger sections of the population with food. The emergence of the first wholesale market is difficult to understand because the market area as a classification criterion must reach a level that clearly exceeded normal weekly markets. The central markets in large cities were most likely to have reached the size of wholesale markets.
Probably the oldest wholesale market of this kind in France was founded in the 5th century on the Île de la Cité and was called Marché-Palu (d) after Paris had developed into a rich and busy trading center. A large fresh market at St. Denis monastery followed in 634/635. Louis VI. In 1137, the year of his death, he had a new market built in Paris with "Les champeaux", which was located in what is now the Quartier des Halles . Philippe II. Auguste had the first two covered market halls built there in 1183. After that, Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières created the "Halle aux Blés" ( German wheat hall ) between 1763 and 1769 , which, on the site of today's Paris Stock Exchange, was a circular building 122 meters in circumference and 25 arcades surrounding an open courtyard.
Charles Fowler built from September 1828 at a cost of £ 61,000, the market hall ( English Market Hall ) at Covent Garden , she celebrated in May 1830 opening. Napoleon III In August 1845 Victor Baltard placed the order for the construction of new wholesale market halls on a 418,000 m² area in the Quartier des Halles , the first stone of which was laid on September 15, 1851. After a tour of Covent Garden during a state visit in April 1855, Napoleon had the fortress-like Parisian stone building torn down again. Baltard began the new building in 1857 and designed 10 interconnected glass and cast iron pavilions , which were initially called "the central halls" ( French les halles centrales ). The pavilions, standing in two rows and with a basement, contained cold rooms, gas light and a sophisticated water supply and sewage system. In September 1858 6 of the 10 pavilions were finished, another two followed by 1860, and it was not until 1874 that the last two pavilions completed the Paris market halls. The opening took place until September 1870, the construction costs amounted to 44 million francs. Émile Zola called the Paris wholesale market in his 1873 novel of the same name " The Belly of Paris ". The market halls, now known as “Les halles”, were expanded in 1936 to include two more halls. In March 1969 the wholesale market moved to Rungis in the south of Paris, where an area of 232 hectares is available.
When the trade regulations (GewO) came into force in June 1869, there was not a single wholesale market of today's character in Germany. The trade regulations also regulate trade fairs and markets , so that wholesale markets were also included in the law.
According to the legal definition of GewO, a wholesale market as a subtype of market trade is “an event at which a large number of sellers sell certain goods or goods of all kinds, essentially to commercial resellers , commercial consumers or bulk buyers”. It is therefore an indefinite legal term that requires further specification. The trade with slaughtered animals is meat law regulated and therefore not commercially object on wholesale markets, but only the meat . In the absence of a legal mention, end users are not permitted as market participants . The legal term does not include the supermarkets that are called Großmarkt (self-service wholesale market). If a fixed wholesale market is not held or is no longer held, the organizer must immediately notify the competent authority in writing ( (3) GewO).
The old trade regulations restricted the objects of trade to raw products , products in direct connection with primary production , fresh food and flowers . In addition, perishable products with preservation could be offered. As a result of this legal trade restriction, roasted coffee , tea and cocoa powder in particular could no longer be sold in wholesale markets since March 1956. The commercial law restriction on certain goods ceased to exist in January 1978.
The EC regulation 853/20 of June 25, 2004 defines wholesale markets as “food companies that comprise several separate units with shared facilities and departments in which food is sold to food business operators”. Animal carcasses must then be delivered to the wholesale markets in three normal wholesale parts.
Local market statutes or market ordinances regulate the market organization in wholesale markets and prescribe the market time, commercial objects, sales facilities and market participants. For this purpose, market passes are issued to those entitled. A market office is often responsible for complying with the market regulations.
The type of marketing of the urban wholesale market traditionally takes on the function of supplying goods to the retail level and to bulk consumers. In contrast to the pure producer markets, the locations of the wholesale markets are primarily in the supply area. They serve the regional or even supraregional supply of large metropolitan areas . Wholesale and wholesale markets are among the most important producers of commercial transport. By municipalities wholesale markets are mostly in the form of government or self operation performed. In 2015, the wholesale market turnover in Germany consisted of 85% fruit and vegetables , 10% fish and meat and 5% other foods.
Well-known wholesale markets
The Rungis wholesale market is the world's largest wholesale market in terms of area with an area of 232 hectares, of which 72 hectares are built on. In addition to the Rungis wholesale market, the Unidad Agroalimentaria de Barcelona (area: 90 hectares) and the Vienna wholesale market (30 hectares), the Berlin wholesale market (330,000 m²) is one of the largest European wholesale markets. Other well-known German wholesale markets are the Munich wholesale market (310,000 m²), the Hamburg wholesale market (283,000 m²), the Cologne wholesale market (238,000 m²) and the Frankfurt am Main freshness center (133,000 m²); One of the smaller ones is the Dortmund wholesale market (62,000 m²).
- Berlin wholesale market
- Vienna wholesale market
- Leipzig wholesale market hall
- Wholesale market hall (Frankfurt am Main)
- Tokyo Prefecture Central Wholesale Market
- Nicole Aimée Meyer / Amanda Pilair Smith, Pariser Markt , 2000, p. 19
- Theodor Schneider, Europa im Wandel der Antike zum Mittelalter , 1996, p. 120
- Audrey Woodiwiss, The History of Covent Garden: Covent Garden Through the Years , 1980, p. 93
- Christopher Curtis Mead / Victor Baltard, Making Modern Paris: Victor Baltard's Central Markets and the Urban Practice of Architecture , 1992, p. 75
- Hans Peters, Municipal Finance and Municipal Economy , 1959, p. 854
- Ulrich Schönleiter, Commentary GewO , 1994, § 66 Rn. 3
- BVerwG, decision of March 31, 1956, GewArchiv 56/183
- Jürgen Albrecht, Relationships between Road Traffic and Economic Structure , Volume I, 1963, p. 59
- Bruno Tietz / Richard Köhler / Joachim Zentis, Handwortbuch des Marketing , 1995, p. 832 f.
- Großmärkte.org, Figures / Data / Facts 2015
- Jörg Gutknecht, Großmarktmarketing , 2007, p. 356