The rule of Ruppin (also Grafschaft Ruppin ) was from about 1214 to 1524 a territory of the Holy Roman Empire in the possession of the Counts of Lindow-Ruppin . In its early days it was presumably imperial . Later the rule was extended to include the fiefs of the Margraves of Brandenburg and in the further course probably came completely under the sovereignty of the Margraves . After the Lindow-Ruppin family died out, power fell to the Mark Brandenburg and henceforth formed the Ruppin district . As Ruppiner Land, the former territory of the rulership forms a historical landscape in Brandenburg .
The area of the later rule of Ruppin was only sparsely populated since the 1st century. Slavic tribes immigrated from the east probably from the 6th century . Since 948 at the latest, the Elbe Slavic tribe of the Zamzizi inhabited the area. Its political center was probably the Slavic castle Ruppin on an island in the Ruppiner See . In addition, the Altfriesack castle wall on the north bank of the Bützsee probably formed another cult focal point. Treskow Castle Wall was on the west bank of the Ruppiner See . In the second half of the 12th century, the area came under German sovereignty after the Wendenkreuzzug in 1147 and the German eastern settlement began in the area.
Around 1214, the area between the Temnitz and Rhin rivers came into the possession of the noble Count Gebhard von Arnstein (* 1180/1209; † around 1256), a great-grandson of Albrecht the Bear, as presumably imperial direct rule Ruppin . He is the first historically documented Herr zu Ruppin and the progenitor of the Counts of Lindow-Ruppin , who formed a branch line of the Counts of Arnstein and remained in the possession of the rulership until 1524. The name Lindow-Ruppin refers to the rule Ruppin and the rule Lindau (also rule Lindow ) in Anhalt , which was also owned by the noble family.
Due to the title of the Count of Lindow-Ruppin, the Ruppin rule was also referred to as the County of Ruppin since the end of the 13th century . Nevertheless, Ruppin was a rule , not a county . The coat of arms of the Ruppin rule showed a silver eagle armored with gold , similar to that of the Counts of Lindow-Ruppin in red .
Shortly after 1220 Gebhard had extended the area of his rule to the east to the borders of Gransee and Löwenberg . He built the Ruppin Castle (also Planenburg ) to Alt Ruppin in the immediate vicinity of the former Slavic castle Ruppin as the political center of the rule. The castle Wildberg was probably also in his possession. Five kilometers southwest of Ruppin Castle, Gebhart founded the Neuruppin settlement as the economic center of the Ruppin rule; it was first mentioned in writing in 1238. Between 1230 and 1240 Gebhart founded the Cistercian nunnery in Lindow . In 1240 he took up his permanent residence in Ruppin Castle. In 1246 Gebhard's brother Wichmann von Arnstein (* around 1185; † 1270) founded the Dominican monastery Neuruppin and became its first prior .
The Neuruppin settlement received town charter in 1256 under Gebhard's son Günther I von Lindow (* around 1230; † around 1284). In the course of the 13th century, the area of the Ruppin dominion was extended northwards to the line Goldbeck - Rheinsberg - Menz . Goldbeck Castle was built around 1300 . In 1349, the states of Wusterhausen and Gransee were added as fiefdoms of the Margrave of Brandenburg , after they had been in pledge possession of the Count of Lindow-Ruppin since 1317 . In 1407 Neustadt became part of the Ruppin rule.
Despite the sovereignty of the Margraves of Brandenburg presumably already in existence at that time, the rule of Ruppin was managed as the territory of the Upper Saxon Empire, which was created in 1512 . According to the Reichsmatrikel of 1521 the rule Ruppin had three soldiers on horseback, twelve soldiers on foot and 42 guilders for the Imperial Army to provide.
In 1524, the noble Lindow-Ruppin family died out with the death of Count Wichmann. The rule of Ruppin was then completely withdrawn by Elector Joachim I of Brandenburg and united with the Mark Brandenburg. It was retained as a corporate and tax unit and from then on formed the district of Ruppin der Mittelmark . Relatives of the deceased Count Wichmann sued the Reich Chamber of Commerce in 1541 against the elector's confiscation of rule. The lawsuit was dismissed in 1562.
- Local research group at the Geographical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR (ed.): Das Rheinsberg-Fürstenberger Seengebiet. Results of the local history inventory in the areas of Zechlin, Rheinsberg, Fürstenberg and Himmelpfort (= values of our homeland . Volume 25). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1974, .
- Local research group at the Institute for Geography and Geoecology of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR (Ed.): Ruppiner Land. Results of the local history inventory in the areas of Zühlen, Dierberg, Neuruppin and Lindow (= values of our homeland . Volume 37). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1981, .
- Friedrich Wilhelm August Bratring : The county of Ruppin in historical, statistical and geographical terms. A contribution to the customer of the Mark Brandenburg . Berlin 1799 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
- Lieselott Enders (adaptation): Historical local dictionary for Brandenburg. Ruppin. With an overview map in the appendix (= Friedrich Beck [Hrsg.]: Historisches Ortslexikon für Brandenburg . Part II; Publications of the Potsdam State Archives . Volume 7). Hermann Böhlaus successor, Weimar 1970, (gives a reprint from 2011).
- Gerd Heinrich : The Counts of Arnstein (= Reinhold Olesch , Walter Schlesinger , Ludwig Erich Schmitt [Hrsg.]: Central German research . Volume 21). Klaus-D. Becker Verlag, Potsdam 2016, ISBN 978-3-88372-150-7 (reprint of the 1961 edition).
- Johann Friedrich Christian Kampe (author), André Stellmacher (editing and commentary): Older history of the Ruppin rule and the city of Neuruppin . Klaus Becker Verlag, Potsdam 2018, ISBN 978-3-88372-063-0 (first edition 1835).
- Literature by and about Ruppin's rule in the catalog of the German National Library
- André Stellmacher: Ruppin rule (under the Counts of Arnstein, mid-12th century until 1524) . In: Historical Lexicon of Brandenburg . 1st March 2019.
- Geographical Institute: Rheinsberg-Fürstenberger Seengebiet. 1974, p. 20.
- The blazon can be found in Albrecht von Brandenburg # Wappen (field 15, without reference to the source).
- Afterwards the toes Krayß .
- Imperial register of 1521 .
- Bratring: County Ruppin. 1799, pp. 256-257.