Basics and boundaries
"Iconic turn", "pictorial turn", "imagic turn", "visualistic turn"
The terms are modeled on the "linguistic turn" described by Richard Rorty in 1967 . The linguistic turn denotes a reorientation of philosophy from the philosophy of consciousness to language analysis. It is assumed that philosophical problems can only be solved in the context of language analytical procedures. The corresponding turning point in the field of images is intended to give image analysis a comparable fundamental role for scientific rationality, and refute Ernst Robert Curtius' thesis that " image science [...] is [effortless] compared to book science".
Imagic turn (turn to illustration), Ferdinand Fellmann , 1991: With the emphasis on imagery, it is no longer fixed systems of symbols, but rather relational structures that prove to be suitable for giving the theory of mind an appropriate foundation. Images should be interpreted as embodiments of the competent consciousness.
Pictorial turn , William John Thomas Mitchell , 1992: Mitchell, trained by McLuhan, Foucault and Goodmann, tries, based on Erwin Panofsky's iconology , to rehabilitate thinking in and about images. He orients himself to the materiality of the picture and would like to combine the turn to the picture with social and political questions.
Iconic turn (Ikonische Wende), Gottfried Boehm , 1994: “The talk of the iconic turn was a sympathetic, thoughtful attempt, the idea of absoluteness, the aura of art that is deeply embedded in German tradition, against the consumption of images through their media understanding to save ”. Boehm's Iconic Turn is based on the hermeneutics of Gadamer and Imdahl.
While Mitchell is oriented towards the use of images in everyday culture and the sciences, Boehm's question is more fundamental when, following the “linguistic turn”, she asks how images create meaning, whether they have their own logos . The starting point is the finding that
- So far, no “science of the image” comparable to general linguistics has developed;
- a "shift from linguistic to visual information, from word to image and - most disturbingly - from argument to video" is taking place and with it
- a "return of images" can be noted.
An interdisciplinary engagement with the world of images, which integrates the knowledge and methods of philosophy , religious studies , theology , ethnology , art history , media studies , cognitive science , psychology and natural sciences , etc. is required.
Visualistic turn (Visuelle Wende), Klaus Sachs-Hombach , 1993: The linguistically conveyed forms of human self and world reference always presuppose non-linguistic sign relationships. Viewed in this way, the linguistic turn was a media turn that was only implemented to a limited extent. With the visualistic turn, the unfinished project of the media turn could be completed within the framework of a general image science.
In the 1980s sparked Vilém Flusser with his Kommunikologie a critical examination of the technical images in the telematic society from. Flusser does not yet use the term “iconic twist”, but with his work on the philosophy of photography (1983) and the universe of technical images (1985) he prepares the ground for a re-evaluation of the image in the post-modern era. He criticizes the tendency associated with the iconic turn to not use images as models of orientation in the real world, but to use concrete experiences in the real world for orientation to and in images, as a new form of idolatry . Johan Huizinga already points to a similar increase in the importance of communication through images and the increasing importance of iconic programs in the late Middle Ages (e.g. the image programs of the church windows, which radiate an immediate presence of the saints) compared to the spoken word, which was not widely used at the time down. The little-researched phenomenon of belief in images can also be studied in the peep box pictures of the 18th century, in the example of television or in modern Powerpoint presentations.
In philosophy, the preoccupation with the image has continued to have an effect since the concept of the iconic turn or, more comprehensively, the “visual turn”; B. Oliver R. Scholz ; Image. Presentation. Character. Philosophical theories of pictorial representation. (1991); Gernot Böhme Theory of the Image (1999) or Emmanuel Alloa: The translucent image. Contours of a media phenomenology (2011).
In terms of the history of science , the visual conditioning of science is examined (see: Sybilla Nikolow and Lars Bluma: The circulation of images between science and the public. A historiographical essay, in: Frosch and Frankenstein. Images as a medium for popularizing science, ed. Bernd Hüppauf / Peter Weingart, Bielefeld 2009, pp. 45–78, examples: Caroline A. Jones and Peter Galison eds .: Picturing Science Producing Art. (1998) and Barbara Stafford : Body Criticism. 1991).
These suggestions were taken up in the field of historical image science. Especially in art history , art criticism and the analysis of visual media, the term media icon and its modifications are based on the foundations of the iconic turn.
- The literature examines the changing relationship between writing and image, for. B. Horst Wenzel : hearing and seeing. Font and image. Culture and memory in the Middle Ages. (1995);
- The philosophy asks for the image conditionality of human knowledge, the Metaphernpflichtigkeit the philosophical tradition and generally on the position of images within the thinking. Cf. u. a. the work of Ralf Konersmann, Oliver Scholz, Klaus Sachs-Hombach, Lambert Wiesing, Emmanuel Alloa.
- The film studies prioritizes the examination of the imagery of the films; z. B. David Bordwell : Visual Style in Cinema. (2001); Angela Dalle Vacche : Classical Film Theory and Art History. (2003);
- The historians considered image sources not only as an illustration, z. B. Bernd Roeck : Visual turn? Cultural history and pictures. (2003); Gerhard Paul : Visual History - A Study Book (2006, ISBN 3-525-36289-7 ) and Gerhard Paul : The Century of Pictures. Picture Atlas 1949 to 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-30012-1 .
- The law is working on an iconology of law and addresses the iconoclasm of the legal system, z. B. Michael Stolleis : The eye of the law . (2004) and the project visual legal communication at the Ruhr University Bochum, chair for legal sociology and legal philosophy, around Klaus F. Röhl and Volker Boehme-Neßler : BilderRecht. The power of images and the powerlessness of law. (2010, ISBN 978-3-642-03877-8 )
- The mathematics dissolves the formula Seeing is believing the iconoclasm of the Bourbaki group , z. B. Benoît Mandelbrot : The fractal geometry of nature. (1987);
- The biology discussed in reference to Darwin , the criterion of beauty for natural selection, for. B. Raghavendra Gadagkar : Is the peacock merely beautiful or also honest? 2003
- The natural sciences and especially computer science reflect the ubiquitous use of digital image processing , computer graphics and information visualization , e.g. B. Jochen Schneider, Thomas Strothotte and Winfried Marotzki (Eds.): Computational Visualistics, Media Informatics and Virtual Communities. 2003, ISBN 3-8244-4550-6 .
- Emmanuel Alloa: Iconic turn. A Plea for Three Turns of the Screw . In: Theory, Culture & Critique. 53 (3), 2015.
- Michael Diers: Beatings. On the political iconography of the present . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-596-13218-5 .
- Vilém Flusser : Into the universe of technical images. 6th edition. European Photography, Göttingen 1999, ISBN 3-923283-43-1 .
- Vilém Flusser: For a philosophy of photography. 9th edition. European Photography, Göttingen 1999, ISBN 3-923283-48-2 .
- Gottfried Boehm (Ed.): What is a picture? 3. Edition. Fink, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-7705-2920-0 .
- Hans Belting : Image Anthropology. Designs for an image science. Fink, Munich 2001.
- Klaus Sachs-Hombach : The image as a communicative medium. Elements of a general image science . von Halem, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-931606-70-8 .
- Christa Maar , Hubert Burda (Ed.): Iconic Turn. The new power of images. The new book for the lecture series . DuMont, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-8321-7873-2 .
- Christoph Wulf , Jörg Zirfas (Ed.): Iconology of the Performative. Fink, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7705-4138-3 .
- Christa Maar, Hubert Burda (Ed.): Iconic Worlds. New worlds of images and spaces of knowledge. DuMont, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-8321-7995-X .
- WYD Mitchell : Image Theory . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-518-58494-1 .
- Emmanuel Alloa (ed.): Image theories from France. An anthology. Fink, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7705-5014-2 .
- Kathrin Busch, Iris Därmann (ed.): Image theories from France. A manual. Fink, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-7705-5013-5 .
- Christoph Asmuth: Pictures on pictures, pictures without pictures. A new theory of imagery. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2011, ISBN 978-3-534-24181-1 .
- Jörg RJ Schirra : Foundation of Computational Visualistics. DUV, 2005, ISBN 3-8350-6015-5 .
Munich, Part 1 The New Image of the World, Felix Burda Memorial Lectures of the Burda Academy . Streams at the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich from SS 2002 to SS 2003. T. 1
- Munich, Part 2 The New Image of the World, ibid. WS 2004/05. T. 2
- Center for Image Science at Danube University Krems
- Virtual Institute for Image Science
- NFS image review. Research focus Basel, initiator & head G. Boehm
- Rhine jump 11. Magazine for visual criticism
- Image. Journal for Interdisciplinary Image Science
- Special issue online magazine Trivium # 1, 2008: Iconic Turn and social reflection. Overall editing of the booklet Georges Didi-Huberman , from him also the introductory essay (this completely edited in German & French; other articles in French, translated from German)
- Global icons. Staging of cultural identity in the media conference, 2004
- picture questions. In: Iconic Turn. Hubert Burda Foundation, May 24, 2007, accessed on August 7, 2012 .
- Emmanuel Alloa: Iconic Turn. A Plea for Three Turns of the Screw. In: Culture, Theory & Critique 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2015 .
- Ferdinand Fellmann: Symbolic pragmatism . Hermeneutics according to Dilthey. Rowohlt, 1991, ISBN 3-499-55508-5 , pp. 26 .
- Ferdinand Fellmann: Inner images in the light of the imagic turn . In: Klaus Sachs-Hombach (Ed.): Images in the Spirit: on the cognitive and epistemological function of pictorial representations . Rodopi, Amsterdam 1995, p. 21.1 .
- William J. Thomas Mitchell: The Pictorial Turn . In: Artforum . Rowohlt, March 1992, p. 89 ff .
- Willibald Sauerländer : Iconic turn? A request for iconoclasm. 2004.
- Cf. the letters of both authors in: H. Belting (Ed.): Bilderfragen . Munich 2007.
- Klaus Sachs-Hombach: The image as a communicative medium . Elements of a general image science. Herbert von Halem, Cologne 1993, ISBN 3-931606-70-8 .
- Vilém Flusser: A New Imagination. In: Volker Bohn (Ed.): Bildlichkeit. Frankfurt 1990, pp. 115–126, here: pp. 118 ff.
- Götz Dahlmüller, Wulf D. Hund , Helmut Kummer: Politische Fernsehfibel. Class communication materials. Strategies for viewers. Reinbek 1974.