Chinese sticky seeds ( Pittosporum tobira ) with fruits
|Banks ex Gaertn.|
The sticky seeds ( Pittosporum ) are a genus of plants in the sticky seed family (Pittosporaceae). Both the botanical and the German common name of the genus are derived from the sticky “ pulp ” in which their seeds are embedded.
Appearance and leaves
The sticky seed species grow as evergreen mostly shrubs or trees , sometimes semi-shrubs , which reach heights of growth of about 1 to 20 meters depending on the species. The parts of the plant are hairy or hairless.
The leaves are arranged alternately , but on the younger branches they are often so crowded that they appear opposite or lively . The often leathery or sometimes membranous, simple (undivided) leaf blades have a smooth, wavy and serrated or wrinkled leaf margin .
Inflorescences and flowers
The flowers are solitary or in terminal or lateral, umbilical , umbrella-like or panicle inflorescences . The stalked flowers are mostly hermaphroditic. The flowers are radial symmetry and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The five free sepals are usually short and small. The five petals are free or partially fused. There is a circle with five fertile stamens . The stamens are bare. Two to three, rarely up to five carpels are fused together to form a (syncarpic) upper, one or incomplete two to five- chamber ovary, which is hairless or hairy. There are usually many, sometimes only one to four ovules in parietal placentation. The short, mostly durable stylus can be divided two to five.
Fruits and seeds
The ellipsoidal to spherical, sometimes flattened capsule fruits have a woody or leathery pericarp . Often the capsule fruits jump open with two to five flaps and present the colored pulp to attract birds to eat the seeds.
The genus Pittosporum is common in the Paleotropic .
Some species of the genus Pittosporum are cultivated as ornamental plants. Several species can be grown outdoors in the British Isles ; in most parts of Central Europe, however, the sticky seeds are not hardy.
The genus Pittosporum was established by the English botanist Joseph Banks in Joseph Gärtner : De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum .... , Volume 1, p. 286, plate 59, figure 7. Synonyms for Pittosporum Banks are Auranticarpa L.W. Cayzer et al. , Senacia Lam. and Tobira Adans.
The genus of sticky seeds ( Pittosporum ) is the most species-rich within the sticky seed family (Pittosporaceae).
There are around 150 species of Pittosporum . Here is a selection of species:
- Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd. et al. (Syn .: Pittosporum phillyraeoides auct.): It is widespread in Australia.
- Pittosporum anomalum Laing & Gourlay : It occurs in New Zealand .
- Pittosporum bicolor Hook. : It occurs in the Australian states of New South Wales , Victoria and Tasmania .
- Pittosporum boninense Koidz. : There are varieties. The nominate form occurs only on the Japanese Bonin Islands Chichijima , Hahajima and Anijima .
- Pittosporum buchananii Hook. f. : It occurs on the North Island of New Zealand.
- Pittosporum colensoi Hook. f. : It occurs in New Zealand.
- Pittosporum confertiflorum A.Gray : It occurs in Hawaii .
- Pittosporum coriaceum Aiton : This endemic occurs only in Madeira .
- Pittosporum cornifolium A. Cunn. : It occurs on the North and South Island of New Zealand.
- Diamond sticky seeds ( Pittosporum crassifolium Banks & Sol. Ex A.Cunn. ): It occurs on the North Island of New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands .
- Pittosporum dallii Cheeseman : It occurs only on the South Island of New Zealand.
- Pittosporum daphniphylloides Hayata : It occurs in China and Taiwan.
- Pittosporum divaricatum Cockayne : It occurs only on the South Island of New Zealand.
- Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle : It occurs in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh .
- Lemon sticky seeds ( Pittosporum eugenioides A.Cunn. ): It occurs on the North and South Islands of New Zealand.
- Pittosporum fairchildii Cheeseman : It occurs only on the Three Kings Islands .
- Pittosporum ferrugineum W.T. Aiton : It occurs in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands , in Myanmar , Thailand , Indonesia , Malaysia , on Palawan , in Papua New Guinea , in the Solomon Islands and in northern and eastern Australia.
Pittosporum glabratum Lindl. , with the varieties:
- Pittosporum glabratum Lindl. var. glabratum : It occurs in the Chinese provinces of Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan and Hunan.
- Pittosporum glabratum var. Neriifolium Rehder & EHWilson : It occurs in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi.
- Pittosporum halophilum Rock : It occurs in Hawaii.
- Pittosporum heterophyllum Franch. : It thrives at altitudes from 800 to 3000 meters, rarely up to 4000 meters in southeastern Tibet and in the Chinese provinces of Sichuan and northern Yunnan .
- Pittosporum hosmeri Rock : It occurs in Hawaii.
- Pittosporum huttonianum Kirk : It occurs in New Zealand.
- Pittosporum kauaiense Hillebr. : This endemic occurs on the island of Kauai .
- Pittosporum moluccanum (Lam.) Miq. C (Syn .: Anasser moluccana Lam. , Pittosporum timorense flower ): It occurs in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia and northern and western Australia.
- Pittosporum napaliense Sherff : It occurs in Hawaii.
- Pittosporum napaulense (DC.) Rehder & EHWilson (Syn .: Pittosporum floribundum Wight & Arn .; Senacia napaulensis DC. ): It occurs in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, China and Madagascar.
- Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. (Syn .: Aquilaria pentandra Blanco ): It occurs in China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines.
- Willow sticky seeds ( Pittosporum phillyreoides DC. ): It occurs only in Western Australia .
- Pittosporum podocarpum Gagnep. : It occurs in India, Myanmar, Vietnam and China.
- Pittosporum pullifolium Burkill : It occurs in Kalimantan and Papua New Guinea.
- Pittosporum ralphii Kirk : It occurs only on the North Island of New Zealand.
- Pittosporum rehderianum Gowda : It occurs in China.
- Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl. : It occurs in the Philippines and Malaysia on Mount Kinabalu .
- Pittosporum revolutum W.T. Aiton : It occurs in Australia.
- Queensland adhesive seeds ( Pittosporum rhombifolium A.Cunn. Ex Hook. ) (Syn .: Auranticarpa rhombifolia (A.Cunn. Ex Hook.) LWCayzer et al. ): It occurs in Australia.
- Pittosporum senacia putt. : It occurs in Madagascar, the Seychelles, Mauritius and Reunion and is a neophyte in Hawaii.
- Narrow-leaved sticky seed ( Pittosporum tenuifolium Gaertn. ): It occurs on the north and south islands of New Zealand and is a neophyte in southeastern Australia.
- Chinese sticky seeds ( Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) WTAiton , Syn .: Euonymus tobira Thunb. ): It is originally found in Fujian , Taiwan, Japan and Korea.
- Pittosporum truncatum E. Pritz. : It occurs in the Chinese provinces of Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan and Yunnan.
- Orange sticky seeds ( Pittosporum undulatum Vent. ): It is native to Australia and is a neophyte in New Zealand, southern Europe, California, Mexico, the Caribbean islands, Hawaii, South Africa, the Azores and Madeira.
Cape Klebsame ( Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims ): It is native to tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, Yemen and India. With the subspecies:
- Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims subsp. viridiflorum
- Pittosporum viridiflorum subsp. feddeanum (Pax) Cufod. (Syn .: Pittosporum feddeanum Pax ): It occurs in Ethiopia.
The following species, temporarily classified in the genus, are assigned to other genera:
- Pittosporum flavum Hook. => Hymenosporum flavum (Hook.) F.Muell.
- Pittosporum macrophyllum K.Schum. & Lauterb. => Erythrospermum candidum (Becc.) Becc.
- Pittosporum yunnanense Franch. => Osmanthus yunnanensis (Franch.) PSGreen
- Zhi-Yun Zhangn Nicholas J. Turland: Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum , p. 1 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (Ed.): Flora of China , Volume 9: Pittosporaceae through Connaraceae , Science Press, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing, Saint Louis 2003, ISBN 1-930723-14-8 . (Sections Description and Systematics)
- S. Hamilton-Brown, 2008: Pittosporum in Western Australian Flora . (Section description)
- Pittosporum in the Flora of Pakistan . (Section description)
- Pittosporum at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Pittosporum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network ( GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Karol Marhold, 2011: Pittosporaceae : Datasheet Pittosporum In: Euro + Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity.
- Zhi-Yun Zhangn Nicholas J. Turland: Pittosporaceae: Pittosporum , p. 1 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (ed.): Flora of China , Volume 9: Pittosporaceae through Connaraceae , Science Press, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing, Saint Louis 2003, ISBN 1-930723-14-8 .