Seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum
|( Lam. ) Verdc.|
Macrotyloma uniflorum is a species of plant from the genus Macrotyloma in the subfamily of the butterflies (Faboideae) within the family of the leguminous plants (Fabaceae). It has been used in southern India forseveral centuries, but has now spread across large parts of the world.
The species is sometimes called horse bean in German , in translation of the English trivial name Horsegram , and is then not to be confused with the field bean, which is often also mentioned . These crop plant is closely related to a number of different beans designated crops , in particular the Erdbohne .
The alternate leaves are stalked and threefold. The petiole is about 1–6.5 inches long. The three egg-shaped to obovate, entire-margined leaflets are rounded at their base, usually 3.5 to 5 (2.5 to 7.5) cm long and 2 to 4 cm wide. At the top they are rounded to pointed or pointed. The terminal leaflet is symmetrical and somewhat petiolate and the lateral leaflets are asymmetrical and very short stalked. The top and bottom of the leaflets are more or less hairy. The stipules are 7 to 10 mm long.
In the leaf axils, the flowers stand individually or in pairs to about four in more or less sessile, short, racemose inflorescences . The hermaphrodite, short-stalked butterfly flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold. The five woolly, hairy, green sepals are fused; the calyx tube is 3 mm long, the pointed calyx teeth are 3 mm long, the upper pair being completely fused. The five petals are whitish to greenish-yellow. The 9 to 12 mm long and 5 to 7 mm wide, obovate flag has two approximately 5 mm long appendages. The two wings and the shuttle are about the same length with 8 to 10 mm. The stalked, single-chamber ovary is above. Nine stamens are fused one is free.
The elongated, bald to woolly hairy, slightly curved, 3 to 8 cm long and 4–8 mm wide legume ends in a 4–7 mm long beak tip and contains 5 to 10 seeds. The egg-shaped to elliptical, flattened seeds are usually 3 to 6, rarely up to 8 millimeters long, 3 to 5 millimeters wide and their colors range from beige to brownish or reddish brown to black, sometimes with spots. The hilum is central, a meticulous aril can appear. The thousand grain mass is between 30 and 50 grams.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22 or 20.
The current distribution area is very large: in Africa: Angola , Botswana , Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Ethiopia , Kenya , Mozambique , Namibia , Rwanda , Somalia , South Africa ( Transvaal ), Sudan , Tanzania , Uganda and Zimbabwe ; in Asia: Bhutan , China , India , Indonesia ( Java ), Nepal , Pakistan , the Philippines , Sri Lanka and Taiwan ; also in Australia .
In the areas of the African collections, the annual rainfall amounts to 450 to 750 mm and in the Indian collections 600 to 2200 mm, a total of mainly 550 to 1000 mm, mostly with a high dominance of summer rain. In the growing areas, the annual precipitation can be a minimum of 300 mm. Leaf diseases can be a problem in areas with high rainfall. They are very drought tolerant, but they do not tolerate flooding and do not tolerate waterlogging well.
When it comes to cultivation, there are also no high demands on the soil quality. The cultivation can take place when the average temperature is between 20 and 30 ° C. If the minimum temperatures are high enough, cultivation takes place at altitudes of 1800 meters.
It was first published in 1786 as Dolichos uniflorus Lam. by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck in Encyclopedie Methodique. Botanique ... Paris , 2, p. 299. The currently valid name Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. was published in 1970 by Bernard Verdcourt in Kew Bulletin , 24: 322, 401.
Within the species Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. there are four varieties:
- Macrotyloma uniflorum var. Benadirianum (Chiov.) Verdc. ( Syn .: Dolichos benadirianus Chiov. )
- Macrotyloma uniflorum var. Stenocarpum (Brenan) Verdc.
- Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. var. uniflorum (Syn .: Dolichos uniflorus Lam. , Dolichos biflorus AUCt. non L. )
- Macrotyloma uniflorum var. Verrucosum Verdc. (Syn .: Dolichos uniflorus Lam. Var. Stenocarpus Brenan )
- Syed Irtifaq Ali: Papilionaceae. : Macrotyloma uniflorum at Tropicos.org. In: Flora of Pakistan . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- Walter H. Schuster, Joachim Alkämper, Richard Marquard & Adolf Stählin: Legumes for grain use: Grain legumes in the world. Justus Liebig University Giessen, 1998 : Walter H. Schuster: Information on Macrotyloma uniflorum .
- Macrotyloma uniflorum - data sheet at Tropical Forages ( Memento from July 23, 2017 in the Internet Archive ).
- B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill, B. Verdcourt: Leguminosae. in Flora Zambesiaca , Volume 3, Part 5, 2001: Macrotyloma uniflorum - online .
- Macrotyloma uniflorum at Tropicos.org. In: IPCN Chromosome Reports . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis