Master IT

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kupferstichkabinett Dresden : Man of Sorrows and four angels with tools of the Passion (L. 55)

Master ES (* around 1420, † around 1468), also known as the master of 1466 , was a German engraver , goldsmith and late Gothic draftsman (1350–1530). He is considered one of the founders of copper engraving and was an outstanding early German engraver and master of his time. In addition to two hand drawings, 318 engravings are now ascribed to him.


The engraver, who went down in art history as Master ES, is only known from his work; neither a name nor written sources with biographical data have been preserved. The art historians gave it the name because some of his works were identified with the abbreviation ES , sometimes just E. or an occasionally reversed e. signed ; all attempts to find a person to match the initials have so far failed. From the Alemannic dialect of his inscriptions, the stylistic and iconographic peculiarities, the coat of arms, his watermarks and his style-forming effect on other workshops and artists, one concludes that he was active on the Upper Rhine in the middle of the 15th century . Since the only known dates on some of his sheets that are stylistically counted among his later works are the dates 1466 and 1467, it is assumed that he died a short time later.

It is very likely that Master ES was active in Constance, Basel, on Lake Constance and in northern Switzerland and later in Strasbourg from around 1440 and that his work must have been created between 1450 and 1468; Comparisons of works suggest that Meister ES could have been influenced by the so-called Master of Playing Cards as well as by Rogier van der Weyden , Konrad Witz and Dutch painting.

The three engravings of the Madonna of Einsiedeln , dated 1466, suggested to the art historian Horst Appuhn in an essay published in 1988 that the initials refer to the Benedictine monastery in Einsiedeln, a Swiss pilgrimage site. The engravings were supposed to be sold there in 1466 on the 500th anniversary of the foundation of the monastery. The letter S could stand for “sanctum” (holy place), “Switzerland” / “Schwyz” or “solitudo” (Latin for loneliness). Since some of Meister ES's sheets differ greatly in facial features, composition and stylistic peculiarities, it is reasonable to assume that the Meister ES is a workshop with several employees.

Art historical background

The evolution of woodcut and engraving

Since the end of the 14th century, the production and use of paper finally established itself in Europe . In contrast , the parchment used up to that point was a more brittle material, more expensive to purchase and so absorbed the paint less well. The development of the printmaking techniques of woodcut and copperplate engraving were the most important art historical inventions in the following 15th century.

The artisans of stuff printing who printed clothes, blankets and curtain fabrics were probably the first to make woodcut prints on paper. The technical process of stuff printing was closest to that of woodcut. The craftsmen dyed their shape model black and printed it on paper instead of on fabric. A picture printed in this way is a woodcut in relief printing . Analogous to this procedure, goldsmiths invented copper engraving around 1430/1440 by blackening engraved copper plates, plastering them - the color remained in the recessed lines - and pressing moist paper onto them (so-called gravure printing process ). The first woodcuts towards the end of the 14th century were mostly single sheets with popular religious themes. Copper engravings were considered more elegant than woodcuts and were more expensive and rare because of the manufacturing effort (material, gravure). Woodcuts were used for mass production and for pictures of saints , leaflets and playing cards.

The signature of the artistic work

The Baptism of Christ, one of the pen drawings attributed to ES, 295 × 215 mm, Paris, Louvre

Artists have been known by their name since modern times . Craftsmen such as goldsmiths and copper engravers, on the other hand, often only appear with their names at a later time. The first artist biography of such a craftsman and artist is that of Albrecht Dürer . In the case of works by unknown artists, emergency names derived from their work are used, but the names of the artists themselves remain hypothetical (e.g. Meister von Messkirch , Naumburg Meister ). In the work of the master of playing cards (active from 1435 to 1455), a personal style of a copper engraver can be recognized for the first time. Around 1440 he was printing card games that had become fashionable on the Upper Rhine. In terms of art history, the master of playing cards is one of the first generation of engravers, while Master ES is one of the second generation. However, he was one of the first to mark their works with a signature, marking them as a personal achievement.

The work of the master ES

Complete works

Of the complete works of the master ES , in addition to two hand drawings that can definitely be assigned to him, only 318 copper engravings ascribed to him have survived to this day. Of these 318 engravings, Meister ES signed 18 with his abbreviation, four with the date 1466 and ten with the date 1467. After this year he is also called "Meister von 1466".

95 of the engravings are only preserved as unique copies, of 50 other engravings there are two prints. The engraver and most gifted successor (workshop estate) of his school Israhel von Meckenem the Elder. J. , are attributed to revisions and copies that he signed with his name, the abbreviation "IM" or the monogram of Martin Schongauer (MS). The copies and other incomplete series show that Master ES created around 200 more engravings, and the total number of his works can be put at 500.

Max Lehrs and Max Geisberg researched the work of the master ES at the beginning of the 20th century and ascribed 318 and 320 engravings respectively to him. The depiction of a monstrance using three plates they counted as one engraving. Lehrs numbered the copperplate engravings and wrote a list in 1910, which was published with an edition of 150 copies. In 1923/24 Geisberg published a table with the master's engravings with an edition of 300 copies.

Larger collections of the work can be found in the following copper engraving cabinets : Kupferstichkabinett Dresden , Kupferstichkabinett Berlin , Albertina in Vienna, Staatliche Graphische Sammlung Munich, as well as in the Louvre collection in Paris and the Kupferstichkabinett in London. In the USA there was an early interest in the works of Meister ES. A large number of engravings from private individuals were collected there. This is one of the reasons why the first major exhibition on the master's oeuvre took place in the Philadelphia Museum of Art in 1967, the presumed 500th year of death . Most of the 84 exhibits came from collections within the United States.

Design and technology

Master ES 'compositions are mostly still characterized by the use of book illuminations. However, his graphical means of the innumerable smallest line layers is new. Through these he models objects, folds, shadows and body parts and lets his figures gain plasticity. Through the intensive use of cross-hatching for the first time in the engraving Blessing Redeemer in half figure (1467, L 56), Meister ES achieved a new optical effect of light and dark. Through this graphic differentiation possibility, the figures evade the abstracting outlines, which could only gain physicality through coloring; they assert themselves - only through black lines and white spaces - independently and open up the space. The late Gothic figure style of Master ES spread rapidly in Central Europe. He raised the technique and expression of copperplate engraving to a level where Martin Schongauer (1450–1491), for example, could begin.


The work of the master ES contains depictions of the Old Testament, the life of Mary with portraits of Mary and Jesus and the passion story , the apostles and evangelists as well as saints and legends. In addition to playing cards and coats of arms, Meister ES also put love gardens, an ars moriendi and a figure alphabet into the picture.

Significant leaves

In terms of art history, the following sheets are classified as the most important in the work of Master ES:

  • Great Madonna of Einsiedeln (L. 81)
  • John the Baptist with the Lamb of God (L. 149, diameter 182 mm), round picture
  • Vision of the Emperor Augustus and the Sibyl (L. 191, L. 192)
  • Ars moriendi (devotional book, L. 181 to L. 191)
  • Small card game (L. 237 to L. 255), Large card game (L. 241 to L. 257)
  • Figure alphabet (L. 283 to L. 305)
  • Large love garden with chess players (L 214); Casual company (L. 215)
  • Nativity (L. 23)
  • Madonna Enthroned with 8 Angels (L. 76)
  • Templates for goldsmiths

Portraits of Mary and Jesus

Great Madonna of Einsiedeln, 1466, hand-colored (L. 81)
Little Madonna of Einsiedeln, hand-colored (L. 72)
Smallest Madonna of Einsiedeln (L. 68)

Devotional images such as images, half-length portraits or portraits of Christ and Our Lady stand for the history of salvation as a whole and were mainly produced for private devotion. Even if not functionally, they are close in content to the images of grace which, as cult images, were the focus of ritual worship and to which miraculous powers were ascribed.

Characteristic of such devotional images are the three engravings of the miraculous image of the enthroned "Madonna of Einsiedeln" from 1466. Master ES created them for the 500th anniversary of the recognition of the "consecration of angels" of the Marienkapelle of Einsiedeln Monastery by Pope Leo VIII. The engravings are all of them are dated and refer to a specific place with Einsiedeln, which is unusual for early copperplate engravings. Einsiedeln was the most important Swiss pilgrimage site on the pilgrimage route of the Way of St. James to Santiago de Compostela . According to a fake papal bull, an angel is said to have consecrated the chapel as the Chapel of Mary and thus elevated it to the chapel of grace. The legend even claims that Christ himself consecrated the chapel in the presence of Mary. The ordination of angels was confirmed by Pope Pius II in 1464 , and a papal document assured the pilgrims a perfect indulgence for eternity during the 14-day angel consecration festival . The miraculous image of the Madonna depicted on the copperplate engravings has no direct reference to the legend of the ordination of the angels, but was added later as a further object of veneration. The chronicles of the city of Konstanz first mention a picture of the Virgin in the middle of the 14th century. The three engravings by Master ES, the "Great Madonna of Einsiedeln" (L. 81, 206 × 123 mm), the "Small Madonna of Einsiedeln" (L. 72, 133 × 87 mm), and the "Smallest Madonna of Einsiedeln “(L. 68, 97 × 65 mm) had different formats and were thus geared to the different solvency of the pilgrims. The edition of the engravings was small compared to the pilgrimage signs . According to projections by the art historians Landau and Parshall, 50 to a maximum of 3000 prints per plate can be assumed. This meant that a maximum of 9,000 prints could have been sold.

In the smallest Madonna you can only see the chapel, the Madonna with the Christ Child, an angel and the monastery founder, St. Benedict. In the little Madonna, Christ and God the Father float as a half-figure on a cloud each above the Chapel of Mercy, Christ consecrates the chapel with holy water and globe, God the Father blesses the chapel. A dove hovers over Mary as a sign of the Trinity . An inscription on the chapel reads “Dicz is dis engelwich zuon Einsidlen” . The Great Madonna also depicts five pilgrims, a man and a woman are already kneeling, one has taken off his hat, another is just about to take off his hat, another is only just joining. Christ is consecrated on the parapet under a canopy, God the Father blesses the church and heavenly angel choirs play music. On an archway it says “Dis is the engelwichi to our dear frouwen to the solitary ave (Maria) gr (a) cia plenna” . The plot is spatially and temporally plausible and developed. In the little Madonna, Christ and God the Father are still moving on the level of reality of an everlasting presence. The more realistic imagery of the great Madonna suggests that pilgrims and divine beings could meet “live”.

On the smallest Madonna, apart from the Chapel of Mercy, there is no reference to the consecration of angels, however, as with the other two Madonnas, the papal insignia can be found as an indication of the papal recognition of the hermit miracle. The different depictions of the Madonna and the Chapel of Mercy on the three copper engravings suggest that the depiction corresponded to a stylistic ideal and that an authentic depiction of the statue of the Virgin Mary was irrelevant for pilgrims, since the effect only came from the small devotional pictures (or souvenir pictures) themselves . Since the Benedictines of the monastery secured the exclusive right to sell devotional objects as early as 1451, it can be assumed that Master ES 'was commissioned.

Devotional pictures have been known since the 13th century and should appeal to the emotional life of the viewer with a pathos and emotional close-up section of a mostly religious narrative and encourage emulation in a dialog-like manner between the image and the viewer. The devotional picture served as an affective-communicative stage direction for the emotional behavior. A preferred subject of devotional images and at the same time the common allegory of the Passion was the so-called Man of Sorrows .

Christ child in the heart (L. 51)

According to the visual language of the time, the man of pain is framed by the tools of torture, suffering or passion. Cross, crown of thorns, nails, the vinegar sponge with a stick, 30 pieces of silver on a board, lance, scourge, the passion column on which Christ was struck, the handkerchief or "Sudarium", the cross title INRI, hammer, drill, rope, grave and shroud are the common attributes of such a representation, which point to the passion story and the death on the cross. As the Man of Sorrows, Christ has a total of five wounds on the side of the body, on the hands and feet. Surrounded by the tools of suffering, he shows himself both as a living person and as a sufferer. The compassionate image should enable the viewer to identify with the accountable and merciful judge. The "Man of Sorrows and Four Angels with Passion Tools" (L. 55, see above) Meister ES 'was his most popular copperplate engraving during his lifetime.

In the late Middle Ages there was the custom of giving yourself a painted, printed or small figure, often with edifying texts, as a present at the beginning of the year. In the copper engraving "Christ Child in the Heart" (L. 51, right), the congratulation can be read on the banner: "Whoever ihs (Jesus) meets in his heart is all zit the eternal froed beraeit". Around the Christ child, little angels carry the instruments of suffering and refer to the passion of Christ. The similar sheet “Christ with New Year's Wish” (L. 50, “Ein guot selig ior” ) is regarded as one of the very first Christmas cards .

Ars moriendi

Temptation in faith (L. 175)
Temptation through impatience (L. 179)

The ars moriendi (lat. "Art of dying") of the master ES belonged to the popular genre of edification literature of the same name in Europe in the 15th century. The work was published in a long (1415) and a short (1450) version. The second chapter of the older version describes five temptations that afflict a person in his last hour and how he can withstand them. The version from 1450 is mainly an adaptation of the second chapter of the version from 1415. The more recent version contains eleven woodcuts of five pairs each and a final cut. The first five cuts show how devils tempt the dying (temptation through despair, temptation in faith, temptation through impatience, temptation through arrogance, temptation through temporal goods). The counterparts show how heavenly beings give consolation (encouragement in faith, consolation through confidence, consolation through patience, consolation through humility, consolation through turning away from the earthly). In the last trick the devils are defeated. The redeemed soul is led to heaven by an angel.

Meister ES created eleven copperplate engravings from this series of pictures based on an illuminated manuscript from 1430. At the same time, a block book with almost identical pictures and explanations in the form of banners was published. Devils or demons want to induce false beliefs (temptation in belief, left picture) by dismissing Solomon's idol worship, the excessive self-mortification of a naked woman and the act of suicide as safe action. The desperate (temptation through despair) is penetrated by devils with daggers. The devil offer crowns to the haughty (temptation through arrogance), a medieval allegory for pride. For the stingy (temptation by temporal goods) they offer a house, a horse with a stable and a well-stocked cellar. A victim of impatience (temptation through impatience, right illustration) knocks over the table with food and kicks a doctor in the back.

Love garden

Large love garden with chess players (L. 214)
Lovers on the garden bench (L. 211)

In the so-called love garden, Meister ES alludes satirically to the courtly way of dealing with lovers. The love garden, the so-called hortus amoenus, is a medieval motif of the Minne lyric and goes back to a Christian motif of the Marian poetry, the hortus conclusus . In the love garden, walls, fences, refreshing fountains and brooks, benches, shady trees, high hedges, fragrant flowers, singing birds, music and song, and also chess players form a refuge of modesty, steadfastness and loyalty, into which worldly vices cannot find access .

The actions of lovers in the love garden are ritual and allegorical in nature. Based on the French rose novel from the 13th century, the garden is an important motif of the Minneallegorie of the Middle Ages. In various pictures, Master ES varies the theme of dissolute and lewd couples in love gardens indulging in lust . Fools - whose access to the love garden is normally denied - lift half-naked virgins up their skirts and grab their breasts, which they only fend off half-heartedly and more temptingly. In these revealing representations, with fools as a sign of morality, Master ES branded the sinfulness of free love and for the first time formulated the image of a sinful meadow of vice. In the Middle Ages, the fool served as a (moralizing) commentator (see Ship of Fools ) and held a mirror in front of people through his actions, for example on stages. On the engravings of Master ES, he appears next to naked seductresses and ladies who carry a wallet with them as a sign of love they can buy, as a lascivious and ridiculous fool whose pants are already slipping down. The figures represented by Meister ES look lasciviously at the viewer and make him an accomplice.

Figure alphabet

Letter n, 1465 (L. 295)

Figure letters were already popular with illuminators during the Carolingian era . Late Gothic graphic artists took up this tradition again in a playful way. Although there were models and model books such as that of Giovannino de Grassi from Bergamo , engravers translated the images into contemporary representations and created novel, plastic and lively representations using the tools of the engraver, the tiny lines and shading. The creation of a figure alphabet, like that of the initial as a pretext for decorative pages, became an artistic activity in its own right. Drolleries , carved figures of animals or people in choir stalls, were also known in the time of Master E. S '.

The figure alphabet, a late work by the master, comprises 23 minuscules of the Gothic alphabet or square textura . The figures step beyond the contours of the letters and are based on their own physique, they form the letter. The themes are mostly profane, only the four letters c ( Margaretha ), d ( John the Baptist ), v ( Christophorus ) and y ( George ) represent popular saints. With the letters s and z, animals of different species kiss each other, one Allegory of free love. In three letters, the m, n and g hides “behind the representations of foolish licentiousness […] but probably also the secret pleasure of the contemporary voyeur” (Bevers). Master ES formulates criticism. In the letter “n”, two monks draped in fool's bells are bared, while a third empties a urine vessel over the one below. A young woman hits the bare buttocks of the monk kneeling in front of her with a stick, his tongue hanging undignified from his neck. Here “the unchaste and vicious life of the clergy is targeted” (Bevers). Wearing the fool's bells shows the monks as fools criticizing their own actions.

The letters k, l and m
The letters n, o and p

Through this attitude, the image production escapes illustrative and pious image evidence and becomes a medium for intellectual debate. The engravings, which are sometimes viewed as immoral representations, were probably commissioned by art collectors. The overarching theme of the alphabet is the medieval struggle between good and evil, between Christian virtues and the “counter-image of a world order willed by God” (Wurst 1999). This counter-image is presented in the form of morally wrong motifs, an "upside-down world", in order to frighten people and to remind them of a Christian life. Knights, servants, Turks, wild people , hunters and animals fight . The monks fight against their desires, the saints have already defeated the dragons depicted below them. In terms of content, the alphabet shows the lower instincts; according to its shape, it calls for spiritual and cultural strength. The letters are no joke pictures in the understanding of a 21st century person. The four letters of the saints indicate in an iconographically unusual way the salvation of man and the attainment of eternal life. In the letter d, John the Baptist points to the book of life and thus to the end of life. On the other hand, he points to the Lamb of God , the symbol of Christ's sacrificial death and the forgiveness of sins, and thus points to a life in the spirit of Christ as the only way. The book of life is also a reference to the Holy Scriptures, "with which a reference to the alphabet is established within the framework of the work of art." (Wurst 1999).

Vogel-Unter, The Great Card Game (L. 269)

Card game

In early printmaking, the very popular card games were mostly made with the cheaper woodcut. Rare and expensive card games in copper engraving satisfied higher demands. Nine copper-engraved card games, some of which have not been fully preserved, have survived from the 15th century. Two of them are attributed to Meister ES, the “Small Card Game” and the “Large Card Game”. In the small card game, 15 of 52 cards are received , and in the large card game 41 of 48 playing cards . Both hands consist of the four figures under, upper, queen, and king, the small hand has nine numbers (As-9), the large hand eight numbers (2-9), the ten is not in any hand. The colors in the large sheet are people, dogs, birds and coats of arms, in the small sheet animals, helmets, coats of arms and flowers. In the big game, the figures sit on mounts (horse, unicorn, camel), in the small game, the king and queen sit on the throne or stand on the ground like under and over. The upper or lower position of the color symbol distinguishes the lower from the upper (left: bird lower). The coats of arms can only be partially assigned. On the coat of arms seven, for example, the coats of arms of the electors can be seen, on the two the double eagle of the empire and the shield, with the king the lilies of France. Other coats of arms show mere crosses and bars etc.

Lady with Helmet and Tying Shield (L. 220)
Passion coat of arms with lamb of God

coat of arms

At the time of Master ES, the northern part of today's Switzerland and the Upper Rhine areas of today's southern Germany, as the foreland , formed a part of Austria. The area seemed Master ES The coat of arms of Austria called on some stitches to be seen shield with associated crest . Amiable ladies act as sign holders. Such pressures were a bookplate pasted into books, collected and exchanged. The coats of arms no longer only served to represent the persons bearing the coat of arms, but developed into ornaments. Due to the popularity of coats of arms and devotional images, Master ES even engraved two coats of arms of Christ (L. 188, L. 189). The coats of arms contain the tools of the Passion , the crest is the crown of thorns with a blessing hand, the shield holders are Jesus and Mary themselves.

Early work

Some of the engravings, initially listed under the emergency name Master of the Sibyl , are considered to be the early work of Master ES


  • Janez Höfler: The Master ES: A Chapter of European Art of the 15th Century. Text and panel volume, Schnell & Steiner, 2007, ISBN 978-3-7954-2027-7
  • Harald Olbrich (Ed.): Meister ES In: Lexikon der Kunst, p. 20722, digital library, volume 43, Directmedia, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-89853-143-0 (electronic resource)
  • Heinrich Klotz: History of German Art. Beck, Munich 1999, Vol. 2, Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Times: 1400–1750, ISBN 3-406-44243-9 , pp. 217–223.
  • Jürgen Wurst: The figure alphabet of the master ES tuduv-Verl.-Ges., Munich 1999, Institute for Art History "Munich": Writings from the Institute for Art History at the University of Munich; 73, ISBN 3-88073-575-1 Introduction (PDF file; 272 kB)
  • Ayumi Yasui: On the fool of the master ES In: Aspects of Problems in European Art History / Department of Western Art History, the Faculty of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 1, 1997, pp. 85-94
  • Barbara Welzel: The consecration of angels in Einsiedeln and the copper engravings by the master ES In: Städel-Jahrbuch 15, 1995 (1996), pp. 121–144, ISSN  0585-0118
  • Peter Schmidt , The copper engravings of the master ES on the pilgrimage to Einsiedeln. In: Artibus. Cultural Studies and German Philology. Festschrift for Dieter Wuttke. Ed .: Stephan Füssel, Wiesbaden 1994, pp. 293–318, ISBN 3-447-03617-6 ( Google books )
  • Holm Bevers: The great love garden. Art dealer Helmut H. Rumbler, Frankfurt am Main 1994 [1]
  • Markus Nass: Master ES: Studies on Work and Effect (= European University Papers , Series 28: Art History ; Volume 220), Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1994, ISBN 3-631-47274-9 (dissertation FU Berlin 1993, 242 pages).
  • Holm Bevers:  Master IT. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4 , p. 711 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Horst Appuhn: All 320 copper engravings / Meister ES Harenberg-Ed., Dortmund 1989, The bibliophile paperbacks; No. 567, ISBN 3-88379-567-4
  • Horst Appuhn: The monogram of the master ES and the pilgrimage to Einsiedeln. Journal for Swiss Archeology and Art History 45, 1988, pp. 301–314, ISSN  0044-3476
  • Horst Appuhn: The monogram of the master ES and the pilgrimage to Einsiedeln. In: Kunstchronik, 41, 1988, pp. 277-280, ISSN  0023-5474
  • Jane Hutchison: Early German Artists: Master ES - Martin Schongauer. New York: Abaris Books, 1980, The Illustrated Bartsch, Plate Volume 8, ISBN 0-89835-000-X
  • Keith Moxey: Master ES and the folly of love. In: Simiolus 11, 1984, pp. 125-148, ISSN  0037-5411
  • Jochim Kromer: The development of the key compositions in late medieval art around 1500: Master ES, Schongauer, Grünewald. Koerner, Baden-Baden 1979, studies on German art history; 357, ISBN 3-87320-357-X
  • H. Kaufmann: Questions about the chronology of the master ES, In: Werner Busch, art as a carrier of meaning. Commemorative publication for Günther Bandmann, Mann, Berlin (West) 1978, pp. 170-184, ISBN 3-7861-1153-7
  • John Rowlands: An Heraldic Design by the Master ES In: Pantheon 26. 1968, pp. 425-429, ISSN  0031-0999
  • Edith Warren Hoffmann: Some engravings executed by the Master ES for the benedictine monastery at Einsiedeln. In: The Art Bulletin 43, 1961, pp. 231-237, ISSN  0004-3079
  • Otto Fischer: History of the German drawing and graphics. German Art History, Volume 4, Bruckmann, Munich 1951
  • Lilli Fischel: Upper Rhine painting as reflected in the early copper engraving. In: Journal (of the German Association) for Art History 1., 1947, pp. 23–28, ISSN  0721-958X
  • Lilli Fischel: Nicolaus Gerhart and the sculptors of the German late Gothic. Munich, 1944, in the appendix: Master ES as a copyist
  • Dorothea Berk: The graphic style of the master ES and its meaning for the early copper engraving. Veal, Gelnhausen 1943, inaugural dissertation Berlin
  • Ernst Kyriss : Bindings from the 15th century with plate stamps after Meister ES, special print from “Buch und Schrift.” New series, Leipzig, 1943
  • Max Geisberg: History of German graphics before Dürer. Berlin 1939
  • Helmut Eisenlohr: The artistic form of the master ES Diss., Königsberg 1938
  • Edith Hessig: The art of the master ES and the sculpture of the late Gothic. German Association for Art History, Berlin 1935, research on German art history; 1
  • Wilhelm Bühler: The master's copper engraving alphabet ES: The latest illustrated world chronicle for 1499. Heitz, Strasbourg 1934, studies on German art history; 301
  • Wilhelm Bühler: The Master's Awakening from Death: St. Mark's Lion , Alphabet, Elector Card, Origin and Name. Heitz, Strasbourg 1928, studies on German art history; 259
  • Peter P. Albert : The Master ES: his name, his homeland and his end; Finds and conjectures. Heitz, Strasbourg 1911, studies on German art history; 137.
  • Adele Pestalozzi-Pfyffer, Der Meister ES and the Schongauer. Bachem, Cologne 1926.
  • Max Geisberg: The copper engravings of the master ES Cassirer, Berlin 1924
  • Max Lehrs, History and Critical Catalog of German, Dutch and French Copper Engraving in the 15th Century. Volume 2, Meister ES, text and volume, Vienna 1910
  • Max Geisberg: The beginnings of German copper engraving and the masters ES Klinkhardt & Biermann, Leipzig 1909
  • Giovannino de Grassi: sample or sketchbook. Last quarter 14th century, Bergamo, Bibliotheca civica Angelo Mai, cod Cassaf. 1.21, parchment

Exhibitions / catalogs

  • Early Northern European Prints from the Herbert Greer French Collection: Master ES to Albrecht Dürer , Cincinnati Art Museum exhibition, 1993
  • Paul Pieper , Israhel von Meckenem and Meister ES , In: Israhel von Meckenem and the German copper engraving of the 15th century, exhibition catalog, Bocholt, 1992
  • Markus Naß, The 'Mother of God with the Lily of the Valley' (Lehrs No. 79) by Neister ES , In: The Dangolsheim Mother of God after her restoration, exhibition catalog, Berlin 1989, pp. 37-40
  • Holm Bevers, Meister ES A late Gothic copper engraver from the Upper Rhine ; State Graphic Collection Munich and Kupferstichkabinett Berlin (State Museums of Prussian Cultural Heritage), Munich 1986.
    • Jan Piet Filedt Kok, review of the exhibition in Munich, Berlin 1986, In: Kunstchronik 40, 1987, pp. 597–602,
    • Christiane Andersson, review of the exhibition in Munich, Berlin 1986, In: Print Collector's Newsletter 18, 1987, pp. 167–170
    • Fritz Quarterly, review of the exhibition in Munich, Berlin 1986, In: Print Quarterly 4, 1987, pp. 304–308
  • Richard W. Gassen, prints of the fifteenth century: the master ES and Martin Schongauer , Wilhelm-Hack-Museum, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, 1980
  • Alan Shestack, Fifteenth Century Engravings of Northern Europe from the National Gallery of Art , Catalog, Washington DC 1967
  • Alan Shestack, Master ES Five Hundreth Anniversary Exhibition. Philadelphia Museum of Art. 1967.

Web links

Commons : Meister ES  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on December 22, 2005 .