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FCI Standard No. 253
Origin :


Patronage :

Great Britain

Alternative names:

Pug, Carlin, Carlino, Doguillo


ideally 6.3–8.1 kg

Varieties :
  • Light fawn with a black mask
  • black
  • silver
  • Beige with black mask
List of domestic dogs

The pug is an English breed of dog recognized by the FCI ( FCI Group 9, Section 11, Standard No. 253 ).

Origin and history

The pug comes from Asia, probably from the Empire of China , where it was bred from dogs similar to mastiffs more than 2000 years ago . It was considered an imperial dog and it was a privilege of the emperors to be able to own and touch it. It is believed that dogs that were not suitable for further breeding were sold to the people at a high price by the breeders.

Despite its small size, it is counted among the Molossians . In the 16th century his ancestors came to the Netherlands with the Dutch East India Company . From there, the pug spread in the ladies' salons , from where it was also added to painting, for example in the portrait of the Marquesa de Pontejos by Francisco de Goya , or became famous as a historical companion, such as Example Fortuné , the pug by Joséphine de Beauharnais ; around 1900 he was replaced there by the Pekingese . From 1918 there was a new upswing in his breed as a fashion dog .

The pug in its historical form has been handed down through paintings by the painter William Hogarth , on which, in addition to the painter's self-portrait, his pug Trump is depicted. The original head shape is particularly clear in Brehm's animal life from 1927.


The pug has smooth, short and soft, shiny fur in the colors monochrome, black, silver-gray, various shades of beige (from white-yellow to apricot), the basic color in clear contrast to the markings. The markings on the head, the mask, forehead marks and birthmarks on the cheeks are clearly delineated and as black as possible. The small ears fall forward and form what is known as a button ear , but rose ears are also allowed. The tail should be set high and rolled as tightly as possible over the hips. A double-curled rod is highly desirable. The FCI breed standard defines an ideal weight of 6.3 to 8.1 kg. Furthermore, the FCI standard required slightly protruding eyes until 2010, the lack of a clearly recognizable catch, so that the dog is flat in the side profile, and a thick nasal fold that completely covers the nose. With the version of October 13, 2010, the FCI standard was changed on these points.

Studbook member associations within the Association for the German Dogs (VDH) are the Club for the Pug, the Association of German Small Dog Breeders and the German Pug Club.

Beige pug with a black mask
Beige pug with a black mask


The FCI describes the essence as follows: “A lot of charm, dignity and intelligence. Balanced, happy and lively. ”Since he is prone to obesity, a balanced diet is important. The pug is very brave and often underestimates dangerous situations, e.g. B. also with other dogs, because he can often not correctly interpret the aggressions brought against him. Since he is very good natured, he can be kept well with other pets.


Comparison of head shape 2003 (left) and 1927 (right)
Henry Bernard Chalon : A favorite pug bitch. Painting oil on canvas 1802
Photo of a one-year-old pug 2014 with pronounced brachycephaly , exophthalmos and valgus carpi on the right

The pug is a brachycephalic breed, that is, it has a rounded head and a short muzzle with slightly protruding eyes. Therefore, this breed often has serious breathing problems as part of brachycephalic syndrome . An empirical study subjected 47 pugs to a standardized stress test according to the guidelines of the German Pug Club, which also supported this study financially. The animals had to run a distance of 1 km in around 11 minutes, which corresponds to just under 5.5 km / h and thus a slightly faster walk. Around half of the animals failed the standard test. It made no difference to the test result whether the pugs came from an association for the German dog breed or from a breed outside the VDH. Animals that fail the test even in repeated cases may not be used for breeding. One result of the study was that pugs with an increased respiratory rate could not pass the stress test even before exposure. Injuries to the cornea from constant irritation with hair of the nasal fold can also occur.

The pug-dog encephalitis is a race-specific inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that occurs when Mops in about 1% of cases. The disease is hereditary and clinically resembles the acute form of multiple sclerosis in humans. In order to prevent a further unchecked spread of the gene mutation in the pug population, a genetic test for the PDE / NME risk factor has been a compulsory test for all breeding dogs in the club since 2015. Pugs that are carriers of the gene mutation may only be paired with pugs that do not have the gene mutation. This reduces the risk of an outbreak of the disease to a minimum.

Breeding exaggerations can lead to numerous other health problems up to symptoms of torture breeding , especially with the pug . In these cases, the relationship between the size of the mother and that of the puppy is often no longer correct. The puppies are then too big for the small mother animals and there are difficulties giving birth. Because the catch is too short, the bitches are sometimes unable to disconnect their puppies. Malformations of the tail and the associated problems of the spine can also occur (see brachy and anuria as well as crippling of the caudal spine ), as well as spina bifida as a result of the breeding extremes of the curly tail.

In order to further improve the state of health (primarily a possible respiratory syndrome) of the pugs bred in the Association for the German Canine System, the VDH, the Federal Veterinary Association , the German Veterinary Society and the Society for the Promotion of Cynological Research have come together to develop a new fitness test for all breeding dogs. After completion of the test phase in the summer of 2021, all pugs with respiratory syndrome should be identified in the future before they are even used in breeding and thus not even get into breeding. Another aspect of this cooperation is the avoidance of a possible breeding ban of the pug breed in the VDH in Germany.

Breeding ban in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the breeding of short-nosed dogs of all races, including mixed breeds, is prohibited as long as their nose length is not at least one third of the head length. For the Pug breed, this means that Pugs may be bred if the length of the nose is at least a third of the length of the head. If the length of the nose is less than a third, these pugs may not be bred. The Dutch breeding association Commedia under the umbrella of the Raad van Beheer (comparable to the German VDH) then stopped breeding until further notice. Commedia and Raad van Beheer are now working on new breeding strategies for the pug breed that are compatible with the animal welfare law in the Netherlands or that are tolerated by the legislature in the Netherlands (as of June 2019).

The pug in culture

Landmarks or symbolic figures and prominent pugs

Pug in Brehms Tierleben, Small Edition 1927
  • In 1504 there was a siege in Bretten by Ulrich von Württemberg , which, according to legend, could only be ended by a pug, the Brettener Hundle . Even today, the successful stand against the siege is still celebrated with the Peter and Paul Festival . The historic "Hundles fountain" with the Brettener Hundle is the city's landmark . A model of the dog on the fountain can be found on a pedestal on the south side of the choir of the Protestant collegiate church.
  • In Winnenden , a memorial commemorates the pug of Duke Karl Alexander von Württemberg-Winnental . He is said to have lost contact with his master during the battle for Belgrade in the fray against the Ottoman troops in 1717 and to have walked back alone to Winnenthal Castle near Winnenden.
  • A porcelain pug was a symbol of the Pug Order , a Masonic society from the 18th century.
  • A pug leads a procession at a monument in Herrenberg (pendulum swing 2000: Jerg Ratgeb, Köche und ein Pug ).
  • Prince William I the Silent of Orange, governor of the Netherlands, is said to have saved the life of a pug named “Pompey” who never left him in the army camp in Hermigny by barking loudly. This is said to have happened at night in 1570, when he was sleeping in his tent and was warned by the barking of Spanish henchmen who were trying to murder him.
  • When William of Orange (the governor of the Netherlands) and his wife Mary II Stuart of England came to England from Orange in 1688, they brought their adored pugs with them, whereupon the entire English aristocracy fell for the pug.
  • When Napoleon shot the Duke of Enghien in 1804, he was accompanied by his pug "Mohilof" on the way to the place of execution.
  • In the Italian folk theater, the Commedia dell'arte , the pug appeared instead of a monkey, which was harder to get. It owes its French name Carlin to the Italian actor Carlo Bertinazzi , called Carlin, who was famous in the 18th century as the harlequin of the Commedia dell'arte and brought this dog into fashion.


William Hogarth : The Painter and His Pug , Self-Portrait with Pug Trump , 1745


  • When our pug was a pug , folk song with text by Hoffmann von Fallersleben ; The Erfurt songwriting combo Ingsteph & Ko set the well-known text to music in a jazz parody.
  • A pug came into the kitchen , folksong, author unknown, melody of the Carnevale di Venezia .


"Life without a pug is possible, but pointless."


  • Wilhelm von Kospoth: The story of the pugs, the favorite dog of Sr. Königl. Highness of the Margrave of Schwedt, Hanswursten, endowed by Chamberlain Baron von Koßpoth. Johann Gottlieb Mauke, Schleiz 1782.
  • Kendall Farr, Sarah Montague (text), George Bennett (photos): Pugs in Public . Stewart, Tabori & Chang, New York 1999. ISBN 1-55670-939-0
  • Katharina von der Leyen (text), Enver Hirsch (photos): The pug - a wonder of nature . Knesebeck, Munich 2005. ISBN 3-89660-310-8
  • Christina A. Veldhuis: The pug. Practical advice on housing, care and upbringing . 3rd edition. Parey, Berlin 1997. ISBN 3-8263-8461-X
  • Evelyn Winckelmann: Pug . Practice guide dogs. PR 06. Bede, Ruhmannsfelden 2003. ISBN 3-89860-015-7
  • Stefan Osterhaus: Comeback of the racing crumple zone. In culture mirror . June 15, 2006.
  • Reiner Jesse: From pugs and other people. AtheneMedia-Verlag, Dinslaken 2012, ISBN 978-3-86992-056-6 , pp. 198-201 (on the history of keeping pugs).

Web links

Wiktionary: Pug  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Pug  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikiquote: Pug  Quotes

Individual evidence

  1. The pug, origin. in Hans Räber : Encyclopedia of dog breeds. Vol. 1. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 1993, p. 634. ISBN 3-440-06555-3 .
  2. ↑ Breed standard No. 253 of the FCI: Pug  (PDF)
  3. ↑ Breed standard No. 253 of the FCI: Pug, behavior / character (WESEN). In: FCI - Standard No. 253: Mops (Pug)  (PDF)
  4. a b Verena Marlene Martin: Significance of an exercise test for pugs with regard to problems associated with brachycephalic respiratory distress syndrome. (Diss.) Munich, 2012.
  5. Autoantibodies against structures of the central nervous system in sterile purulent meningitis arteritis in the dog. Dissertation. (PDF file; 1.17 MB)
  6. RM Barber, SJ Schatzberg, JJ Corneveaux, AN Allen, BF Porter, JJ Pruzin, SR Platt, M. Kent, MJ Huentelman: Identification of risk loci for necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Pug dogs. In: The Journal of heredity. Volume 102 Suppl 1, 2011 Sep-Oct, pp. S40-S46, ISSN  1465-7333 . doi : 10.1093 / jhered / esr048 . PMID 21846746 .
  7. ^ KA Greer, AK Wong, H. Liu, TR Famula, NC Pedersen, A. Ruhe, M. Wallace, MW Neff: Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis. In: Tissue Antigens . Volume 76, Number 2, August 2010, pp. 110-118, ISSN  1399-0039 . doi : 10.1111 / j.1399-0039.2010.01484.x . PMID 20403140 .
  8. Genetic test for PDE / NME risk factor in the club for the pug. Breeding rules and explanations for pug dog encephalitis
  9. Practical Guide Dog and Cat by Sophia A. Yin, Ingo Nolte; Page 445
  10. Pug fitness test in the VDH is intended to counteract the impending breeding ban in Germany. (PDF; 72 KB) Club für den Mops eV, June 18, 2019, accessed on August 13, 2019 .
  11. ^ Announcements of the breeding club Commedia
  12. Jesse, p. 200.
  13. The Pug from Edelstein. Narrative. In: The fairy tale from: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe : Conversations of German emigrants. In: Project Gutenberg.