from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jabneel (2002)
Jokneam (2009)
Kinneret (2008)

The moschava ( Hebrew מושבה, Plural מושבות Moschavot , also Moschawa ) is one of three rural forms of settlement in Israel . The better known and more common are the moshav and the kibbutz . The economy of the places is essentially based on agriculture. Unlike in moschav and kibbutz, the farmers are individual farmers with their own means of production. The land and operations are privately owned.

The moschavot is the oldest Jewish form of a rural settlement in today's Israel. The villages were usually laid out before the First World War based on the model of Central European villages. The founders were Jews who came to the country with the first or second aliyah or came from the original Jewish population, the old yishuv .

In total, significantly fewer than one hundred moschavot were founded. Cities have now developed from many moschavot. Today there are still five moschavot, all of which are in the northern district : Jabneel , Jokneam , Kinneret, Menahemia and Mitzpa.


In 1878, residents of Jerusalem founded Petach Tikwa, the first moschava. It was the very first Jewish agricultural settlement in what was then Palestine. That is why she later received the nickname "Mother of Moshavot" ( Em HaMoschavot ). The new foundation was abandoned because of malaria and floods.

In the first aliyah from 1882 the organization Chibbat Zion founded further moshavot. Most of the residents came from Eastern Europe, especially Russia . The second, now successful founding, now by immigrant Jews of the first Aliyah, took place in 1882 and coincided with the founding of Rishon leZion and Rosh Pina .

The first start-ups were not a success. The poor climatic conditions, the unfavorable soils, the lack of agricultural experience, the poor health and hygienic conditions (especially malaria), an inadequate infrastructure and the general hostility of the authorities of the Ottoman Empire made life in the moshavot very difficult.

Many moschavot were saved from economic collapse by the French-Jewish Baron Edmond James de Rothschild . He invested in the development of infrastructure and public services, in modern agriculture and in the processing of agricultural products. Above all, his investments in wineries became known . Baron de Rothschild also bought additional land and established new settlements. Although the moschavot managed to avoid a collapse and developed well, they paid with the loss of their independence, as the management had to be transferred to Baron de Rothschild. In January 1900 this transferred responsibility for "his villages" to the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA). With that the time of his direct guardianship came to an end. Since 1901 the ICA founded further moschavot.

The moschavot were exemplary for the beginning of Jewish settlement in Israel. They were the first to realize the ideas of the national rebirth of the Jewish people. They created the first basis for an independent Jewish life in Palestine based on agriculture, and thus for the later State of Israel. That is why they are also known as dawn .



Regarding the area: One acre corresponds to approx. 4047 .

Surname founding district Founded by Inhabitants 1914 Area 1914 in acre comment
Atlit 1903 Haifa ICA 50 6800 Is a small town today .
Bat Shlomo 1889 Tel Aviv Baron de Rothschild 1150 30,668 Was converted into a moschav in 1951 .
Bet Gan 1903 Northern District ICA 100 4549 Has been incorporated into Jabneel.
Bnei Jehuda 1887 Northern District Safed residents 50 3200 Abandoned in 1913, re-established as Moschav in 1972, lies on the Golan.
Hadera 1891 Haifa district Chibbat Zion 450 31,355 Is a city today .
A time im 1892 Northern District Chibbat Zion 25th 6016 Abandoned after the Hebron massacre in 1929 .
Gedera 1884 Central District Chibbat Zion 200 5632 Is a city today.
Giv'at Ada 1903 Haifa district ICA 70 5000 Is a city today .
Hartuv 1895 Jerusalem Chibbat Zion 75 4670 Was destroyed in an Arab attack in 1929.
Herzlija 1924 Tel Aviv district - - Is a city today.
Jabneel 1901 Northern District ICA 300 24,422 Is still a moschava today.
Jesud HaMa'ala 1882 Northern District Chibbat Zion 225 12,228 Is a small town today .
Jokneam 1935 Northern District - - Is still a moschava today.
Kfar Saba 1892 Central District Resident of Petach Tikva 50 7231 Is a city today.
Mahanajim 1898 Northern District Chibbat Zion 67 5657 Abandoned in 1912, it is now a kibbutz.
Mas'ha 1901 Northern District ICA 200 16,023 Has been called Kfar Tabor since 1903 and is now a small town .
Kinneret 1908 Northern District ICA 35 5572 Is still a moschava today.
Mazkeret Batya 1883 Central District Baron de Rothschild 350 12,723 Is a city today.
Meir Schfeja 1889 Haifa district Baron de Rothschild 128 8518 Today is a youth village.
Menahemia 1901 Northern District ICA 200 9477 Is still a moschava today.
Metulla 1896 Northern District Baron de Rothschild 325 16,907 Is a city today.
Mischmar HaJarden 1890 Northern District Safed residents 125 7596 Was destroyed in the Palestine War in 1948 .
Mitzpa 1908 Northern District ICA 50 3240 Is still a moschava today.
Motza 1894 Jerusalem District Residents of Jerusalem 40 1100 Was destroyed in an Arab attack in 1929.
Nahariya 1934 Northern District - - Is a city today.
Nes Ziona 1891 Central District Private initiative 200 2793 Is a city today.
Netanya 1929 Central District - - Today is a big city .
Pardes Hanna 1915 Haifa district - - Is a small town today
Petach Tikva 1878 Central District Residents of Jerusalem 2500 23,837 Today is a big city, the first moschava.
Qastina 1887 South district Chibbat Zion 150 5622 Was partially destroyed and abandoned in an Arab attack in 1929, re-established as Moschav Be'er Tuvia in 1930.
Ra'anana 1922 Central District - - Is a city today.
Ramat Hasharon 1923 Central District - - Is a city today.
Rechovot 1890 Central District Chibbat Zion 800 14,913 Today is a big city.
Rishon leTzion 1882 Central District Chibbat Zion 850 11,402 Today is a big city.
Rosh Pina 1882 Northern District Chibbat Zion 650 20.102 Is a city today.
Sejera 1899 Northern District ICA 200 17,707 Has been converted to the Moschav Ilaniya.
Zichron Ya'akov 1882 Haifa Chibbat Zion 871 7194 Today is a local government .

This list does not include the five places in what is now the Syrian town of Hauran .

Today's moschavot

Surname founding Local government district comment
Jabneel 1901 Jabneel Northern District
Jokneam 1935 Megiddo Northern District
Kinneret 1908 Emek ha-Jarden Northern District
Menahemia 1901 Emeq HaMa'ayanot Northern District
Mitzpa 1908 HaGalil HaTahton Northern District

Individual evidence

  1. moshava Zionism and Israel - Encyclopedic Dictionary