district 501 of Cologne
|Residents||36,574 (Dec. 31, 2017)|
|Population density||12,191 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Apr 1, 1888|
|Light rail lines|
|Source: 2017 residents . (PDF) Cologne district information|
There are numerous interpretations of the name Nippes, which was originally used in the form “am Nippes” (“am Nipp-Haus”, compare “Backes = Backhaus”). The word component Nipp is derived either from “Niep” for a damp depression and reminds us that an arm of the Rhine once ran in this area and the subsoil was accordingly swampy, or “Nepp” indicates a hill or a small hill. The old arm of the Rhine running from Riehl via Nippes to Niehl, which was still recognizable as a pond until the 19th century and the remains of which today form the Nippes valley, could speak for this first derivation; on the other hand, many of the places, districts or corridors that are called trinkets elsewhere are on hills.
At the end of the Stone Age , there were other arable settlements in today's urban area, in Nippes and in the city center as well as in Merheim and Brück, which are assigned to the Michelsberg culture . Excavations at Altenberger Hof have proven the remains of a Roman house from the 1st to 2nd centuries.
In 1199, the "glory of Mauenheim" was mentioned for the first time, with today's Altenberger Hof and two other larger courtyards in the middle . However, it is very likely that the first homestead was built there much earlier. The “Herrlichkeit Mauenheim” stretched in the east to Niehler Strasse, in the west to today's Bilderstöckchen and in the south to today's Ebertplatz . Nippes is first mentioned in a document in 1549 when "Johann van Wermßkirchen, wyrt am nippis" is mentioned in a lease. The Schweidkarte by Abraham Hogenberg , published after 1609, shows the settlement "Maurhem" north of Neusser Straße, south of it the even smaller "Nippes". The village of Nippes, located in the area of the “Herrlichkeit Mauenheim”, became more and more important in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries and gradually surpassed “Maurhem” in size.
From several council resolutions and edicts it is known that Nippes was very popular, especially because of its beer houses serving the Doll beer, which is banned in Cologne. The pubs outside the Cologne city gates were not subject to the city's control and did not have to pay excise duties. On April 23, 1755, the Cologne city council forbade people to go out for Dollbier to Nippes and elsewhere “abroad”.
During the French period , Nippes belonged to the mayor's office Longerich ( French Mairie de Longerich ), the tranchot card from August 1807 referred to the settlement as "Nippes" again. Even after the Congress of Vienna she remained with the Prussian mayor of Longerich . Since the Prussian rayon regulations did not allow industrial settlements in downtown Cologne , numerous companies settled in Nippes from around the middle of the 19th century. The best- known examples are the Auermühle founded by Heinrich Auer (1850; which later became known through the brand name Aurora in Deutz ), the Clouth Gummiwerke (1868) or the lubricant factory "Kretzer & Wirtgen GmbH" (1875).
Since 1855 Nippes has been connected to the Cologne – Kleve railway line with the Köln-Nippes train station . On December 28, 1859, the management of the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft decided to build a central railway workshop and a marshalling yard on the 60 acre (hence "Sechzigstraße") site near Siebachstraße, which were closed in 1991. In 1860, the railway engineer Emil Hermann Hartwich (1801–1879) acquired the former site of an adobe field in today's “Sechzigviertel”, which also contained sand for bricks.
In 1875 the consul Ernst Hardt applied to the municipality to set up a horse-drawn tram to Nippes and Ehrenfeld , but it was not until October 19, 1876 that the “City of Cologne” gave its approval for its construction. It was completed in September 1877. The line turned out to be not very profitable, so it was not immediately electrified. On January 1, 1886, Nippes was combined with the localities of Mauenheim and Riehl to form a separate municipality of Nippes. On January 1, 1887, the municipality of Nippes was spun off from the Longerich mayor and raised to its own mayor's office, which, however, did not last long and was also incorporated into Cologne in 1888. In 1889 the "Great Nippes Carnival Society" was founded, the successor of which is the "KKG Nippeser Bürgerwehr von 1903 eV" founded in 1903.
In 1898 the city of Cologne acquired the Wilhelmplatz area, which was built in 1899. It has not been established whether there was a brickworks on Wilhelmplatz. It is named after Kaiser Wilhelm I ; The names of other streets and squares in Nippes are also of Prussian origin, they refer to famous generals and officers (e.g. Schill-, Bülow-, Blücher- or Gneisenaustrasse). A weekly market has been taking place on the 3000 m² Wilhelmplatz since July 24, 1900 , the only daily weekly market in Cologne. The pond, which existed in the “Nippeser Tälchen” in the 19th century, was a popular local recreation area with rowing opportunities. The green space located there today, with the adjacent, renovated Altenberger Hof as a cultural venue and restaurant, serves similar purposes. The last ride on the horse-drawn tram on the Nippes- Flora route took place on May 22, 1907, long after electrification began on October 15, 1901.
During the Second World War , Nippes experienced the worst night of the war from July 8th to 9th, 1943.
Today Nippes is a lively "Veedel", in the center of which is Neusser Strasse with many shops. The traditional pub Em Golde Kappes , which is well known far beyond the city district, is also located here . The Eisenbahn-Quartier (also called "Sechzigviertel") (Sechzigstraße, Hartwichstraße and secondary streets), which has its origins in a settlement of the railway repair shop, represents a district in the district . This work no longer exists; instead, a partially car-free settlement with single and multi-family houses was built.
A new residential area, the Clouth Quartier , has been built on the site of the former Clouth factory since 2013 . Over 1,000 apartments are being built on a plot of around 25,000 square meters. The first apartments were occupied in December 2015.
The Rheinisches Industriebahn-Museum (RIM) has been housed in the former Cologne-Nippes depot since 1992 . This is not in the area of the Nippes district, but is in Bilderstöckchen and Longerich.
Structure of the population of Köln-Nippes:
- Share of under 18s: 15.0% (2014)
- Proportion of over 64 year olds: 13.5% (2014)
- Proportion of foreigners: 16.9% (2015)
- Unemployment rate: 5.9% (2014)
Nippes is known, among other things, for its daily (except Sundays) market on Wilhelmplatz. It was launched around 1900. The street carnival in the district is traditionally opened there on Weiberfastnacht at 9.11 a.m. by the Nippes vigilante , a traditional corps of the Cologne carnival .
There are attractive green spaces on the outskirts of the district: the “Nippeser Tälchen” in the north, the “Nippeser Schweiz” in the southwest, the “Lohsepark” in the south and the “Johannes-Giesberts-Park” in the east. Whole streets present house facades from the Wilhelminian style and Art Nouveau , e.g. B. Schwerinstrasse, Leipziger Platz and Eisenachstrasse. Also worth seeing are the "Altenberger Hof", which now houses the Nippeser Civic Center, and the Nippeser churches. The oldest among them is the church “St. Heinrich und Kunigund ”(built 1850–1852 according to plans by the master builder Vincenz Statz ) on Mauenheimer Straße, one of the youngest St. Hildegard in der Au on Corrensstraße.
The Gymnasium Köln-Nippes (unofficially also called “Blüchergymnasium”, since the beginning of 2011 officially “Leonardo-da-Vinci-Gymnasium Köln-Nippes”), located in the middle of Nippes, has a recently renovated, handsome facade made of red, white-banded Miltenberg sandstone and houses a planetarium and two observatories.
The Evangelical Luther Church is the only neo-Gothic church in Cologne with almost completely preserved original furnishings, including a complete window cycle. It is also used regularly as a cultural church.
Nippeser street names
Nippes can be divided into districts according to the street name with a few exceptions, which are listed below:
- The Eisenbahn-Quartier (built or renamed from 1893) → Hartwichstrasse, Kleine Hartwichstrasse, Nohlstrasse, Sechzigstrasse, Werkstattstrasse, in 2006 the streets on the site of the former railway repair shop in Cologne-Nippes were named, the street names Wagenhallenstrasse, Kesselhausstrasse, Am Alten Signal box, Bahnwärterweg, At the old canteen, At the repair shop, Lokomotivstraße and At the turntable are based on the old operating facilities and locations on the site
- The Preußen-Quartier (built from 1900) → Blücherstrasse, Bülowstrasse, Einheitstrasse, Freiherr-vom-Stein-Strasse, Gneisenaustrasse, Leipziger Platz, Louis-Ferdinand-Strasse, Nettelbeckstrasse, Scharnhorststrasse, Schillstrasse, Schwerinstrasse, Tauentzienstrasse, Waterloostrasse, Wilhelmplatz, Yorckstrasse
- The Thuringian Quarter (built or renamed from 1892) → Eisenachstrasse, Thüringer Strasse, Wartburgplatz, Wartburgstrasse
- The artists' quarter (built or renamed from 1893) → a. Adam-Wrede-Strasse, Cranachstrasse, Gellertstrasse, Grabbestrasse, Holbeinstrasse, Joseph-Bayer-Strasse, Kuenstrasse, Schenkendorfstrasse, Schneider-Clauss-Strasse → b. Geldorpstrasse, Hogenbergstrasse, Simon-Meister-Strasse
- The Niederrhein-Quartier (built before and renamed from 1880 (under a.) / Renamed in 1893 or built from 1932 (under b.)) → a. Dormagener Strasse, Knechtstedener Strasse, Ürdinger Strasse, Zonser Strasse → b. Eltener Strasse, Isselburger Strasse, Kalkarer Strasse, Kevelaerer Strasse, Xantener Strasse
- The colonial quarter (built from 1935) → Gustav-Nachtigall-Straße, Kamerunstraße, Lüderitzstraße (renamed Usambarastraße on September 13, 1990), Carl-Peters-Straße (renamed Namibiastraße in 1990), Tangastraße, Togostraße
- The Botaniker Quarter (built from 1956) → Correnstrasse, De-Vries-Strasse, Nägelistrasse
- Old Nippes and Cologne families → Auerstrasse, Auguststrasse, Christinastrasse, Eichstrasse, Franziskastrasse, Lohsestrasse, Siebachstrasse, Steinbergerstrasse
- The Flora Quarter (built or renamed before 1880) → Florastraße, Gartenstraße, Nelkenstraße
- The Clouth Quartier (built on the site of the former Clouth Gummiwerke AG ) → Luftschiffplatz, Josefine-Clouth-Straße, Kautschukstraße, Seekabelstraße, Am Walzwerk and Auf dem Stahlseil
- Church buildings → Josephkirchplatz, Turmstrasse
- special honors → Baudriplatz, Baudristraße, Erzbergerplatz, Franz-Clouth-Straße, Kretzerstraße, Krüthstraße
Personalities from knickknacks
- Lis Böhle (1901–1990), dialect poet
- Heinrich Eduard Miesen (1913–1947), editor, foreign reporter, Christian opponent of National Socialism, prisoner in the Dachau concentration camp and publisher and writer
- Marie-Luise Nikuta (1938–2020), Cologne dialect singer
- Fritz Schramma (* 1947), Lord Mayor of the City of Cologne from 2000 to 2009
- Alfred Miersch (* 1951), author
- Gaby Köster (* 1961), actress and cabaret artist
- Fatih Çevikkollu (* 1972), cabaret artist, comedy star and first hand-made speaker at the Cologne Carnival with Turkish roots
- Georg Hinz, pastor at the Archdiocese of Cologne, co-founder of the Domforum, founder and chairman of the association “Loss mer singe e. V. ”-“ Loss mer singe ”is Cologne's largest and most famous sing-along movement. The sing-along actions started at the end of the 1990s in Hinzen's kitchen, in the middle of Nippes. Hinz was born on the Lower Rhine in Goch.
- Alice Haruko Hasters (* 1989 ), German journalist, book author and podcaster.
- Archive for the history of the district of Cologne-Nippes eV: Loss mer jet through Neppes jon. A neighborhood guide. 3rd revised edition, Cologne 2010
- Bürgererverein Stadtteilarchiv Köln-Nippes eV (ed.): Loß mer jet through Neppes jon. A journey through history. Cologne 1987
- Franz Irsfeld (Ed.): Nippes yesterday and today. A history of the borough and its neighborhoods. Cologne, 1983
- Reinhold Kruse: Book series Nippes - Remarkable and entertaining things from a Cologne district in 6 volumes
- Ines Vente, Rolf Vente: Trinkets in Cologne. Description of a German habitat. Cologne, 1986
- Official website of the city of Cologne for the Nippes district
- Website of the Rheinisches Industriebahn Museum
- Website of the history association for the Cologne-Nippes district
Notes and individual references
- Peter Caspers: Op Kölsch-The dictionary . 2nd Edition. Greven-Verlag, Cologne 2014, ISBN 978-3-7743-0380-5 .
- Kölner Stadtanzeiger from June 2, 2015, Joachim Frank: Köln Nippes - the Veedel with the most charming name
- see Reinhold Kruse: Nippes - wat es dat eijnahm. Nippes - Remarkable and entertaining things from a Cologne district , Volume 3. Emons Verlag, Cologne 1997
- Kölnischer Geschichtsverein, Jahrbuch , Volume 67, 1996, p. 237
- top-fermented and "Doll herb" (black henbane , "witch herb") offset of beer led to intoxication, therefore Doll beer was often forbidden by the Council. Outside the city, however, the council had no powers, so the Dollbier was enjoyed in Deutz, Nippes, Melaten and at the Bayenturm until people were "doll" or "raderdoll".
- Historical archive, witnesses Cologne brewing culture 1396-1996 , 1996, p. 55
- Peter Fuchs (ed.), Chronik zur Geschichte der Stadt Köln , Volume 2, 1991, p. 146
- Andreas Haller, Cologne travel guide Michael Müller Verlag , 2015, o. P.
- Otto Kayser, Die Bahnen der Stadt Cöln , 1913, p. 1 f.
- Otto Kayser, Die Bahnen der Stadt Cöln , 1913, p. 8
- Historical archive of the city of Cologne: Mayor offices Longerich and Nippes
- Peter Fuchs (Ed.), Chronicle of the History of the City of Cologne , Volume 2, 1991, p. 155
- Inhabitants according to selected age groups - data source: City of Cologne - offenedaten-koeln.de
- Inhabitants according to selected age groups - data source: City of Cologne - offenedaten-koeln.de
- Inhabitants by type of migration background - data source: City of Cologne - offenedaten-koeln.de
- Employed and unemployed part of the city - data source: City of Cologne - offenedaten-koeln.de
- Note: The Tanga road was to the port city of Tanga in Tanzania named
- Note: In the early years it was fashionable to use the first name, especially that of the wife.
- Loss mer sing. Accessed July 31, 2018 (German).