|State :||Tamil Nadu|
|Location :||11 ° 39 ' N , 78 ° 9' E|
|Height :||283 m|
|Area :||91.34 km²|
|Residents :||829,267 (2011)|
|Population density :||9079 inhabitants / km²|
Salem (also: Selam or recently Salerno ; Tamil : சேலம் Cēlam ) is a city in the district of the same name in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu . The city is the seat of a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church founded in 1930 .
Location and climate
Salem is located in inland Tamil Nadu, surrounded by mountains, a good 350 km (driving distance) southwest of Chennai (formerly Madras ) at an altitude of approx. 290 m . It is divided into 4 zones ( Ammapet , Hasthampatty , Kondalampatty and Suramangalam ) and 60 wards . The climate is tropical and warm; Rain (approx. 1200 mm / year) falls mainly in the summer monsoon season .
Almost 90% of the population are Hindus and around 7.5% are Muslims ; the Christian population is quite high at 2.5%. The male population is only about 1.5% higher than the female. Only around 16% of the population are illiterate . About 72% of the population speak Tamil as their mother tongue; 12% speak Telugu , 6% Kannada , 5% Urdu and 3% Saurashtri .
Salem is one of the most important centers of the Indian textile industry. The place is also known for its steel mill, which is operated by the Steel Authority of India . Another important industry in the region is tourism. For example, Salem is the starting point for excursions to the Yercaud Mountains, an hour's drive away , which are particularly valued for their cool, pleasant climate. The road and rail network is relatively well developed in the region. Salem has its own airport , but currently (end of 2018) there is hardly any flight operation.
The area around Salem was inhabited by roaming hunters and gatherers as early as the Stone Age and Neolithic Age; the sedentism started v around 1500th In the 3rd century BC Chr. Reach of Buddhism and Jainism South India. Coin finds from the Neronian period show that the ruling Pandya dynasty had trade relations with Rome . From the 4th century the rise of the Hindu Pallava dynasty began, which, after another interlude of the Pandyas, were ousted by the Chola from the 9th to the 11th centuries . The Hoysala ruled in the 12th and 13th centuries . Around the year 1310, the Islamic Sultanate of Delhi under the leadership of General Malik Kafur extended its feelers to southern India, but around the middle of the 14th century the Vijayanagar Empire took over sovereignty over southern India for about 200 years At the end of the 16th century passed to the rulers of Madurai . In the 18th century, the kings of Mysore and their generals Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan usurped power. The latter were already fighting against the British , but they were defeated by Tipu Sultan in 1799. The British built Salem into an important base.
Despite the long and diverse history of the city, almost no historically or culturally significant buildings have survived in Salem.
- The Sri Sugavaneswarar Temple , consecrated to the Hindu god Shiva , is the largest temple in the city and is said to be 500 to 1000 years old, but most of the structure is much younger.
- The same applies to the Kottai Mariyamman Temple, which is dedicated to the mother goddess Mariyamman , which is extremely popular in South India .
- The ISKCON temple is run by the Hare Krishna sect founded in 1966 .
- The Infant Jesus Cathedral is a modern building from the early 1990s.
- The approx. 1600 m high Shevaroy Hills with the central mountain village of Yercaud are worth a trip.
The physicist AP Balachandran was born in Salem .