Main house from the south, February 2012
|Alternative name (s):||Odenburg|
|Creation time :||probably 15th century|
|Castle type :||Niederungsburg|
|Conservation status:||Basement, ground floor and first floor, gutted, in newer parts|
The Stalburger Oede , previously also Odenburg , was one of numerous medieval aristocratic and patrician residences in the district of Frankfurt am Main . The moated castle , which was at least temporarily connected to a garden, meadows, pond and a vineyard, was located at the height of today's Glauburgstrasse in the Frankfurt-Nordend district .
The complex can be traced back to the beginning of the 15th century and is still preserved in the outer walls, into which a restaurant of the same name with a theater has been integrated since the end of the 19th century . The current address is Glauburgstrasse 80 / Humboldtstrasse 67 .
Topography and etymology
The roughly trapezoidal area of the Stalburger Oede connected in the south, separated by a narrow dirt road, to the old Leimenrod district, which has been attested since the middle of the 14th century .
As Roden designated parcels presented originally represented forests that have been converted in the course of the occupation of the land into fields ( slash ). Attributions then often referred to the properties of the trees or the soil once growing there, as was the case in this case.
The courtyard area was bounded to the east and west by the Eckenheimer Landstrasse and the Oeder Weg , which existed in the Middle Ages . Behind the Eckenheimer Landstrasse was the so-called Zwerchlandwehr until Bornheim came to Frankfurt with the division of the Bornheimerberg in 1474 .
In addition to the city walls, the Zwerchlandwehr represented an additional defensive ring made of impenetrable hedges and ditches. Thus, the Stalburger Oede stood right in front of the border of an area that belonged to the county of Hanau , which was at war with the city, until the end of the 15th century .
The older name of the farm as Odenburg referred even more directly than the younger one or the name of the neighboring Holzhausenschen Oede (today Holzhausenschlösschen ) to the fact that there was a castle-like building in a remote location near the border. "Od", "Ode" or the later common "Oede" was a typical local name for the country estates of the urban nobility and patriciate scattered within the Landwehr .
Etymological explanation for the name of the Oeden Weg, which merged directly north of the farm with the Eckenheimer Landstrasse, which continued to follow the Zwerchlandwehr, is not only the former course through a deserted area, but also the role as the only way to the "Oeden" .
The origins of the plant are unknown. A judicial purchase letter from 1415 mentions it for the first time under its old name Odenburg . The certificate was actually issued for the purchase of 4 acres of land south of it, but used the name to specify the location with "located in the leymenrode by der Odenburg and stoszen uf der Eckenheimer away" . The first mention allows the statement that the courtyard existed in 1415 and, since it was already a common term, it must have been built well before that year. Nothing is known about the structural condition during this time.
In 1498 Claus Stalburg bought the farm from its previous owner, Peter Leideleben von Carben . Stalburg, who was also nicknamed the rich , was not only the senior and younger mayor of the city several times, but also the wealthiest Frankfurt patrician of his time. The purchase of the farm in the country went hand in hand with the construction of a family seat in the city, the Great Stalburg , which was considered to be one of the most important and beautiful buildings of the late Gothic bourgeoisie in the free imperial city .
In his purchase commitment, Stalburg characterized the facility as "located in front of the Eschenemer porten, which is the kleyne oede to this zyt" , so its older name had already been forgotten under the Leidelleben of carbene. In the designation as "kleyne oede" a demarcation to the nearby Holzhausenschen Oede , better known today as Holzhausenschlösschen , can be seen. It is obvious that the new owner furnished his country estate as splendidly as his town house, or even had it rebuilt, but it has not been recorded.
After Claus Stalburg's death, the farm passed to his second son, Kraft Stalburg . He had to pledge it in 1539 for unknown reasons, but for the first time the document provides precise information about the size of the complex. In addition to the dwelling, a garden, meadows, ponds and a vineyard are mentioned there.
Ultimately unsuccessful - - 1552 Stalburger desolation in Frankfurt was siege by Protestant princes to Maurice of Saxony , like almost all similar facilities in the district sacked . The siege plan made at that time , one of the first topographical representations of the city area, also shows the - burning - Stalburger Oede for the first time, but does not reveal any structural details.
Stalburg then had the building restored, as an inscription later walled in above the door reminded of:
"When some princes besieged the neighboring town on March 17th in 1552, my father's house was burned and rebuilt anew by me, Kraft Stalburg, in memory of this."
Kraft Stalburg remained without an heir and died in 1572. However, he still had thirteen siblings, eight of whom reached adulthood. In his will of August 3, 1567, he therefore stipulated that the oldest male representative of the Stalburg line should always own the court, as well as the headquarters in the city, and maintain it at the same time, but never change it or even tear it down. In the will, Stalburg described the complex as the "stainen stock, die clain ode or Stalburger ode" .
The farm remained in the family's possession for centuries. In the 18th century, probably shortly before 1734, the complex was redesigned in Baroque style . The only indication of this, however, is a year on a fountain in the garden, which corresponds satisfactorily with the stylistic features of the building, which came over in this state in the 19th century. After the family with Johann Adolph Friedrich von Stalburg , who had remained childless, died out in 1808 , the Stalburger Oede was auctioned off in 1812, and the farm went to the Rothschild family for 22,000 guilders . The changes that have now begun are mostly passed down by the painter Carl Theodor Reiffenstein, born in 1820 .
Accordingly, the former ditch was filled in around 1839, the bridge was removed, new window panes were installed and the house was painted white. In 1873, in the course of the development of the north end, the site was transferred to the Internationale Baubank, which initially had the site leveled around the courtyard and the old trees removed in order to enable parcelling and development.
This cleared the way for the typical, regular streets of historicism with extensive courtyards within the street blocks, as they still characterize the Nordend today. Looking at maps and satellite images reveals that it was pure coincidence that the historic building was not in a street, but in an inner courtyard and therefore did not fall victim to demolition.
In 1874 Reiffenstein noticed that the building had been raised by another floor, which meant that the original basement, ground floor and upper floor were retained. In 1876 the actual courtyard area was then leveled, whereby the historical fountain, as Reiffenstein further reported, fell victim to the destruction regardless.
In 1879 the “Zur Stalburg” apple wine tavern opened in the building, which had largely been gutted inside, to which a narrow toilet facility had been added to the east. Before the First World War , probably around 1900, further additions were made to the east, including a dance hall and a two-story residential building on today's Humboldtstrasse . Furthermore, a bowling alley was built in a separate building to the southwest of the main building.
The building and use have largely remained unchanged to this day. The Doebel family of innkeepers worked there until 1934 , since then, now in the third generation, the Reuter family . Since 1998, the Stalburg Theater , founded by the journalist Michael Herl , has been performing in the former dance hall .
How often conversions or new buildings took place before the Baroque era, and to what extent the current building still contains older, i.e. pre-baroque, substance has neither been recorded nor, if published, researched. The representation on the siege plan does not allow more than the conclusion that the building, which burned down in 1552, was a smaller moated castle , accessible via a drawbridge , and even then consisted of only one building ( Weiherhaus ).
Mainly due to the work of Carl Theodor Reiffenstein , however, a relatively detailed description is possible at least of the exterior, in which the complex was located after the Baroque era from 1734 to 1839. Their entire area, which comprised around 25 acres , i.e. around 5 hectares of land, was separated from the rest of the district by a hedge around it. This is confirmed by the siege plan. Within this separated area, the two-storey main house stood on a rectangular floor plan in a moat.
The moat left some space behind the house for a small garden, which was also protected in this way. A bridge with two round arched arches led to the main entrance with two steps, above which the inscription by Kraft Stalburg , probably secondary, was walled up (and still is, see the following section on the current state).
The inscription was distributed on both sides of the family coat of arms. The component is peculiar to its character as a spoiler of a visibly older building, above the coat of arms and inscription there is a finely profiled pinnacle coronation, which is why it was originally more likely to be used as an overdoor or chimney top. It remains unclear whether the building was rebuilt in 1552 and then walled up in 1734 in the place where it is still today, or whether it is even older, i.e. from the previous building destroyed in 1552.
The long side of the house was divided into seven, the shorter into three axes. The high windows showed, typical of the Frankfurt Baroque, simple red sandstone walls and an arched end with a blinding keystone . The steep, kinked hipped roof , which still referred to the Gothic origin of the building, had a small, simply ornamented triangular gable above the central axis with the entrance . On the long sides there were two dormers in two rows, on the short only one, and in each of the two outer areas of the ridge a chimney.
There was also a fountain in the area of the courtyard, which Carl Theodor Reiffenstein described as follows:
“It lay under dark and wildly overgrown linden trees in a square sunk into the earth like most such wells in this area, with stairs leading down. It had a round wreath made of blue stones, on the front side of which, facing the house, was the von Stalburg coat of arms along with the year 1734, and was in excellent condition. "
Nothing has been handed down about the original interior layout. In 1839, Reiffenstein found floor panels from the former interior in the garden behind the house, which was included in the moat, which stylistically belongs to the middle of the 16th century and is therefore likely to be ascribed to the time of reconstruction by Kraft Stalburg.
The building now has its own house numbers in Glauburgstrasse and Humboldtstrasse , but jumps back around 15 meters to the north behind the street line that laid out on the drawing board in the late 19th century. Its origin, which is older than the rest of the development, can be recognized in the aerial photo by the fact that it is slightly twisted against the predominant development axes.
The second floor and the flat mansard roof from the 1870s are located on the historic ground floor and first floor . To the east, the annexes, which are visibly independent of each other due to the construction seams and interior layout, are attached - toilet facility, dance hall and the residential building of suburban dimensions used today by the theater, which is flush with Humboldtstrasse.
On the long sides of the former main building, the division into seven window axes has been preserved, which consistently continues into the dormers of the roof structure. The old baroque cloaks with keystones, vaulted with arched arches, are also completely present - in contrast to the rectangular ones on the second floor, which was added later. The windows on the short sides are all walled up, which gives them the character of fire walls . However, you can recognize them on the west side due to their plastic character under the color.
Most of the windows on the north side, accessible via Humboldtstrasse, are still open on the long sides, only the second from the east on the ground floor and the third from the east on the upper floor have been walled up. The apparently old portal in the middle axis of the ground floor bears the house number. A cast-iron staircase from the time it was converted into a restaurant opens up the upper floors, which are now used as rental apartments.
The south side is accessed via Glauburgstrasse. The windows on the first and second floors are all open there. The main portal is located in the middle axis of the ground floor, a pavilion-like porch conceals large parts of the "pewter polish" above with the coat of arms, in which the three shells characteristic of the family can just be made out under several layers of color. While the former main portal leads into a side room of the restaurant used as a smoking room, the main entrance is located two axes to the east in a former window that has been broken out below.
The eastern three by three axes of the first floor now contain the large taproom of the inn. The ceiling is supported by two massive beams , which in turn rest on cast iron columns. Doors open up from there to the eastern parts of the Stalburg Theater in particular , to the west the smoking room and a central aisle that leads to the other, non-public parts of the ground floor and meets the stairwell to the south approximately in the middle.
Under the stairwell there is a visibly older staircase that leads to various basement rooms. Similar to the conditions on the ground floor, they are accessed via a central aisle and are largely barrel-vaulted ; one room has a beamed ceiling. In the east, under the taproom, there is an almost square room, which, due to its construction, probably goes back to the origins of the facility. It is vaulted by overlapping barrels that rest on a massive central pillar.
Despite the relatively high proportion of original building fabric and its importance as one of the oldest, at least partially preserved, buildings outside of the historic city area, the building is not a listed building .
- Dieter Bartetzko : Safe behind firewalls and plane trees. The Stalburg, an unknown remnant of Gothic Frankfurt. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung. May 28, 1995, p. 14.
- Johann Georg Battonn : Local description of the city of Frankfurt am Main. Volume I, Association for History and Archeology in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main 1861, pp. 228, 229, 231, 232, 250 u. 251. (online)
- Rudolf Jung , Julius Hülsen: The architectural monuments in Frankfurt am Main. Volume 3: Private Buildings. Self-published / Keller, Frankfurt am Main 1902–14, pp. 281–286.
- Hans Lohne: Frankfurt around 1850. Based on watercolors and descriptions by Carl Theodor Reiffenstein and the painterly plan by Friedrich Wilhelm Delkeskamp. Verlag Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1967, ISBN 3-7829-0015-4 , p. 456 u. 457
- Eduard Pelissier : The Landwehr of the Imperial City of Frankfurt am Main. In: Association for history and antiquity to Frankfurt am Main (Ed.): Archive for Frankfurt's history and art. Third episode, eighth volume, K. Th. Völcker's Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1905, p. 53 u. 54.
- Battonn 1861, p. 231 and 232.
- Battonn 1861, p. 228.
- Pelissier 1905, p. 53 and 54.
- Battonn 1861, p. 250.
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 281.
- Battonn 1861, p. 251.
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 282.
- Battonn 1861, p. 250 and 251.
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 282 and 283.
- The former Stalburg Oede. In: Nordend Chronik * The history of the Frankfurt Nordend. Retrieved January 27, 2012 .
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 283.
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 284.
- Bartetzko 1995, p. 14.
- Stalburg Theater Frankfurt - information about the theater. In: Stalburg Theater Frankfurt. Retrieved January 27, 2012 .
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 286.
- Lohne 1967, p. 456 and 457
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 282 and 284.
- Jung, Hülsen 1902-14, p. 286; Footnote 1.