District திருச்சிரப்பள்ளி மாவட்டம்
|Administrative headquarters :||Tiruchirappalli|
|Area :||4,509 km²|
|Residents :||2,722,290 (2011)|
|Population density :||604 inhabitants / km²|
The Tiruchirappalli District ( Tamil : திருச்சிரப்பள்ளி மாவட்டம் ; formerly Trichinopoly , Tiruchi or Trichy for short ) is a district of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu . The administrative center is the eponymous Tiruchirappalli , the fourth largest city in Tamil Nadu. The Tiruchirappalli district has an area of 4,509 square kilometers and around 2.7 million inhabitants (2011 census).
The Tiruchirappalli District is located in the central interior of Tamil Nadu. Neighboring districts are Salem in the north, Perambalur in the northeast, Ariyalur in the east, Thanjavur and Pudukkottai in the southeast, Sivaganga and Madurai in the south, Dindigul in the southwest, Karur in the west and Namakkal in the northwest.
The area of the Tiruchirappalli District is 4,508 square kilometers. The district area is traversed by the Kaveri , the largest river in Tamil Nadu. On the river island of Srirangam near Tiruchirappalli, the Kaveri divides into two estuary arms, one of which keeps the name Kaveri and the other is known as Kollidam . A small area in the north is drained by the Vellar River. The area of the Tiruchirappalli district is mostly flat, only a few rugged rocks, like the one on Tiruchirappalli's landmark, the Rock Fort , rise from the flat surroundings. In the northeast on the border with the Salem district lie the Pachaimalai Mountains, an isolated branch of the Eastern Ghats .
In the Tiruchirappalli district there is an alternately humid tropical climate . The annual mean temperature in Tiruchirappalli is 28.8 ° C, the annual mean precipitation is 860 mm. Most of the rainfall occurs during the northeast monsoon between October and December. It also rains during the southwest monsoons in August and September.
Uraiyur , today in the suburb of Tiruchirappallis, was the capital of the early Chola rulers. It was founded in the 3rd century BC. Mentioned in the Ashoka inscriptions and in the 2nd century AD by the Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy as Orthura ( Ὄρθουρα ). Around the middle of the 9th century, the Cholas moved their capital to Thanjavur . In the middle of the 13th century the area of today's district came under the rule of the Hoysalas and a little later of the Pandyas, who reside in Madurai . At the beginning of the 14th century, Malik Kafur , a general of the Sultan of Delhi , led a campaign to southern India and founded the Sultanate of Madurai . The area of the Tiruchirappalli district also belonged to this short-lived state before it was conquered by the Vijayanagar Empire around 1372 . After the decline of Vijayanagar, Tiruchirappalli came under the rule of the Nayaks of Madurai in the 16th century, who had been appointed as military governors by the Vijayanagar rulers and who now filled the power vacuum that had developed (see Nayak dynasties ). In the middle of the 17th century, the Nayak ruler Chokkanatha moved his capital from Madurai to Tiruchirappalli. In the turmoil that followed the end of the Nayak dynasty in 1736, Tiruchirappalli came under the rule of the Nawabs of Arcot . In the Carnatic Wars (1744–1763) there was fighting between the British and French , who vied for supremacy in South India, and their allies in the area of today's district . In the period that followed, Tiruchirappalli was subjected to several attacks by Hyder Ali , the king of Mysore , and his son Tipu Sultan . In 1801 the British annexed the territory of the Nawabs of Arcot.
After the area became part of British India , it was incorporated into the province of Madras as the Trichinpoly District (Tiruchirappalli) . The district initially comprised the area of today's districts Tiruchirappalli, Karur , Perambalur and Ariyalur . After Indian independence, the dissolved princely state of Pudukkottai was added to the Tiruchirappalli district. In 1956, as part of the States Reorganization Act , the district came to the newly formed state of Madras, which now included the Tamil-speaking areas and was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969 . Subsequently, the Tiruchirappalli district shrank through the establishment of new districts: in 1974 the area of the former princely state of Pudukkottai was separated from the Tiruchirappalli district to form the new Pudukkottai district with some areas from the Thanjavur district . In 1995 the Tiruchirappalli district was divided into the three districts of Tiruchirappalli, Karur and Perambalur. In 2001, the Ariyalur district split off from the Perambalur district.
According to the 2011 Indian census, the Tiruchirappalli district has 2,722,290 inhabitants. The population density of 604 inhabitants per square kilometer is slightly above the state average (555 inhabitants per square kilometer). With the 850,000 inhabitants Tiruchirappalli , the fourth largest city of Tamil Nadu belongs to the district. A total of 49 percent of the residents of the Tiruchirappalli District live in cities. The degree of urbanization thus corresponds to the mean value in Tamil Nadu (48 percent). 17 percent of the district's residents are scheduled castes . The literacy rate is 83 percent, slightly above the state average (80 percent).
The majority of the residents of Tiruchirappalli District are Hindus . According to the 2011 census, they make up 84 percent of the district's population. There are also minorities of Christians (9 percent) and Muslims (7 percent). The main language in the district Tiruchirappalli is like all over Tamil Nadu, the Tamil . According to the 2001 census, 95 percent of the district's residents speak it as their first language. There are also smaller minorities of speakers of Telugu (3 percent) and Urdu (1.5 percent).
The Tiruchirappalli District is divided into nine taluks :
In the Tiruchirappalli district there is one major city ( Municipal Corporation ), three cities with their own municipalities ( Municipalities ), 17 small towns administered according to the Panchayat system ( Town Panchayats ) and ten Census Towns . The number of inhabitants is given according to the 2011 census.
- Municipal Corporation
- Tiruchirappalli (847.387)
- Town panchayats
- Balakrishnampatti (8,635)
- Kallakudi (11,604)
- Kattuputhur (10,933)
- Koothappar (15,943)
- Lalgudi (23,740)
- Manachanallur (25,931)
- Mettupalayam (7,681)
- Musiri (28,727)
- Ponnampatti (12,167)
- Pullampadi (10,241)
- Puvalur (7,905)
- S. Kannanur (13,073)
- Sirugamani (10,743)
- Thathaiyangarpet (12,980)
- Thiruverumbur (23,156)
- Thottiyam (14,909)
- Uppiliapuram (7,705)
- Censorship cities
- Ellakkudy (16,244)
- Krishnasamudram (13,146)
- Kulathur (11,083)
- Nagamangalam (5,785)
- Navalpattu (16,788)
- Palaganangudy (13,469)
- Pappankurichi (24,023)
- Pichandarkovil (17,257)
- Thalakudi (5,740)
- Valavandankottai (9,202)
- The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Volume 24: Travancore to Zīra. New edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1908, pp. 25f. , Keyword: Trichinpoly District .
- Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract - Tamil Nadu. (PDF; 873 kB)
- Climate data from climate-data.org .
- Census of India 2011: Primary Census Data Highlights - Tamil Nadu. Chapter - I Population, Size and Decadal Change.
- Census of India 2011: Primary Census Data Highlights - Tamil Nadu. Chapter - II Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Population.
- Census of India 2011: Primary Census Data Highlights - Tamil Nadu. Chapter - III Literates and Literacy Rate.
- Census of India 2011: C-1 Population By Religious Community. Tamil Nadu.
- Census of India 2001: C-15: Population by Mother Tongue (Tamil Nadu), accessed under Tabulations Plan of Census Year - 2001 .
- Census of India 2011: Primary Census Abstract Data Tables: Tiruchirappalli.