Wolfgang yeast flour

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wolfgang Hefermehl (born September 18, 1906 in Elsterwerda ; † October 29, 2001 in Heidelberg ) was a German lawyer , professor at the University of Heidelberg and one of the most powerful representatives of German commercial law of the 20th century. As a member of the SS since 1934 and a deputy district judge in the Reich Ministry of Justice , he worked on National Socialist legislation which, according to Hefermehl, "finally resolved the Jewish question in the economic field" at the end of 1938. Hefermehl commented on this piece of legislation in the official organ of the Reich Ministry of Justice, German Justice, and thereby legitimized it publicly.


The son of a district court president attended the Schulpforta boarding school and began studying law at the University of Berlin after graduating from high school . In 1934 he finished his legal training with the Second State Examination. Then Hefermehl entered the Prussian judicial service as a "one-year lawyer". In issue 44 of October 30, 1936 of the official gazette of the Reich Ministry of JusticeGerman Justice ”, the transfer of Hefemehl from the district court of Naumburg (Saale) to the district court of Wiesbaden was announced on page 1647 . From 1941 to 1945 he was a member of the higher regional judge at the higher regional court in Frankfurt am Main . He was the only member of the judiciary at this OLG who belonged to the SS . Until 1945 he was seconded to the Reich Ministry of Justice. There he worked as an employee of Ernst Geßler as a "consultant for legislation on the administration of enemy assets". 1944 Hefermehl at the University of Berlin with the investigation "The enemy property rights restrictions" at Wolfgang Siebert to Dr. iur. PhD .

After the end of the war, Hefermehl fled from Berlin to Hamburg under a false name , where he hid with the lawyer Philipp Möhring . After a complaint in 1947 or 1948, he was arrested and subjected to a denazification process, but was able to present himself as less burdened with an incomplete list of publications. He moved to Nordwalde near Munster , his wife's hometown, where he was offered a subordinate position as an inspector in Hesse , which he turned down. After that he worked as a tutor in Münster. In 1953 he completed his habilitation at the University of Cologne with Hans Carl Nipperdey . After a substitute professorship at the University of Heidelberg , Hefermehl accepted a position at the Mannheim Business School in 1956 . In 1959 he moved to the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster and in 1961 to the University of Heidelberg, where he held the chair for labor law, civil law, commercial and business law until his retirement . A well-known student of Wolfgang Hefermehl is Peter Ulmer .

In 2015, Hefermehl was posthumously revoked his honorary doctorate from the University of Salzburg because "... the active dissemination of National Socialist ideology had been concealed in the procedure for awarding the honorary doctorate".

In his essay on "The De-Judaization of the German Economy" in the journal Deutsche Justiz (1938), Hefermehl commented in detail on the ordinance on the expulsion of Jews from German economic life of November 12, 1938 (RGBl. I, 1580). November 1938 (RGBl. I, 1642) and the ordinance on the use of Jewish property as a member of the Reich Ministry of Justice, which was the main author of these ordinances. After naming the three ordinances, yeast flour communicates the purpose they pursue:

“[...] pursue the purpose of completely breaking the Jewish influence on the German economy and thus finally solving the Jewish question in the economic field. At the same time, they represent the conclusion of a uniform and systematic legislative work, considered as a whole, with the aim of the overall dejudication of the German economy. [...] In the following, a broad outline of this legislative work, which is now established in its basic forms, is to be given. "

Sections “I. Personal scope "," II. The determination of the Jewish property ”,“ III. Exclusion from economic activity "," IV. The transfer into non-Jewish possession ”,“ V. The Use of Jewish Assets ”,“ VI. Material scope ".

On January 19, 1940, an article by Hefermehl with the title “War Economic Law” was published in the magazine “Deutsche Justiz”. The text begins like this:

"The war imposed on us by the enemy states has given the German economy its own legal guise."

On February 9, 1940, another article by Hefermehl appeared in the same journal. This time he explained the ordinance on the treatment of hostile property of January 15, 1940. Hefermehl was again presented to the readers as the “District Judge in the Reich Ministry of Justice”. In the section “Personalnachrichten” a booklet had previously been announced that Friedrich Ernst had become Reich Commissioner for the Treatment of Enemy Property. Together with Karl Krieger, Hefermehl expanded his article into a continuous commentary. The comment ("loose-leaf edition") was praised as a practical guide ( in the occupied eastern territories ) in a review of the " Zeitschrift für Osteuropäisches Recht " of the Breslauer Osteuropainstitut in early 1942 :

“The purpose of the present work is to continuously inform the practitioner about the meaning and objectives of the legislation on the treatment of enemy property in a concise form.

The ordinance of January 15, 1940 was repealed by the Law on the Repeal of War Regulations of June 14, 1951.

According to the findings of the University of Salzburg, Hefermehl also joined the SS early on and was also SS storm leader from 1934. He was repeatedly given leave of absence by the Reich Ministry of Justice for party events and to support the party , including for the Nazi party rally in 1935 and 1936 and to look after foreign guests at the Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. From 1941 he was SS-Obersturmführer , in 1942 he was drafted into the Waffen SS .

(revoked) appreciations

In 1981, Hefermehl was awarded the Great Federal Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1983 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Law Faculty of the University of Salzburg , but this was revoked by the same institution in 2015. Posthumously, the work of Hefermehl was honored with the Great University Medal of Heidelberg University in December 2001.

The German Association for Commercial Legal Protection and Copyright granted him honorary membership and dedicated a commemorative publication to him on his 90th birthday with the September 1996 issue of the legal journal Commercial Legal Protection and Copyright .

Primary literature

Secondary literature

  • Werner Knopp : Wolfgang Hefermehl . In: A portrait of lawyers. Publisher and authors in 4 decades . Verlag CH Beck, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-406-33196-3 , pp. 396-405
  • Peter Ulmer : Wolfgang Hefermehl . In: Stefan Grundmann , Karl Riesenhuber (eds.), German-speaking civil law teachers in reports from their students. A history of ideas in individual representations, Volume 1, Berlin 2007, pp. 238–259. Available on Google Books
  • Louis Pahlow : Wolfgang Hefermehl (1906-2001) . In: Simon Apel, Louis Pahlow, Matthias Wießner (eds.): Biographisches Handbuch des Intellectual Property , Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2017, pp. 133-137.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Wolfgang Hefermehl: The Entjudung der Deutschen Wirtschaft, in: Deutsche Justiz , Issue 50 of December 16, 1938, p. 1981
  2. Arthur von Gruenewaldt: The judges of the higher regional court Frankfurt am Main in the time of National Socialism: The personnel policy and personnel development . Volume 83 of contributions to the legal history of the 20th century, Mohr Siebeck, 2015 ISBN 978-3-16-153843-8 , p. 315 ff.
  3. Stefan Grundmann (Ed.): German-speaking civil law teachers of the 20th century in reports of their students , Volume 2 to: A history of ideas in individual representations , Walter de Gruyter, Munich, 2011 ISBN 978-3-89949658-1 , p. 423 ff.
  4. Wolfgang Hefermehl: The Entjudung der Deutschen Wirtschaft, in: Deutsche Justiz , Issue 50 of December 16, 1938, pp. 1981–1984
  5. Wolfgang Hefermehl: The Entjudung der Deutschen Wirtschaft, in: Deutsche Justiz , Issue 50 of December 16, 1938, p. 1981
  6. Wolfgang Hefermehl: War Economy Law; in: Deutsche Justiz, Volume 102, Issue 3 from January 19, 1940, pp. 85–88
  7. Wolfgang Hefermehl: The treatment of hostile property; in: German Justice. 102nd volume, issue No. 6 of February 9, 1940, pp. 165–170
  8. Ordinance on the Treatment of Enemy Property of January 15, 1940, online with context at "ns-quellen.at"
  9. staff news ; in issue 5 of February 2, 1940 in the magazine Deutsche Justiz, p. 153
  10. ^ Karl Krieger and Wolfgang Hefermehl: Treatment of the hostile property. Commentary on the Ordinance on the Treatment of Enemy Property of January 15, 1940 ...; Loose-leaf edition, Munich: Beck 1940 ff.
  11. ^ Heinz Meyer: Review of "Krieger, Karl and Wolfgang Hefermehl: Treatment of hostile property. Comment. Loose-leaf edition. CH Beck'sche Verlagsbunchhandlung Munich and Berlin, 1941 »; in: Journal for Eastern European Law , ed. from the Eastern European Institute in Breslau, editor-in-chief Heinz Meyer (head of the legal department of the Eastern European Institute), NF 8th year, issue 7/8 from January / February 1942, p. 438
  12. Law on the Repeal of War Regulations of June 14, 1951
  13. University of Salzburg revokes Konrad Lorenz's honorary doctorate . In: Salzburger Nachrichten of December 17, 2015
  14. University revokes honorary doctorates for Konrad Lorenz and Wolfgang Hefermehls
  15. ^ Website of the University of Heidelberg ( Memento from November 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive )