Antigone [ an'ti: gɔne ], also Antigonae or Antigonä ( Greek Ἀντιγόνη ) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek poet Sophocles . Creon , tyrant of Thebes, forbids the burial of Polynices , as the latter has waged war against his own city. Antigone , Polynices' sister, breaks the ban; as a punishment, Creon has them walled up alive. This triggers a chain of suicides : Antigone kills himself, followed by her fiancé Haimon , Creon's son, and finally Eurydice , Creon's wife and Haimon's mother , kills himself . In Athens probably in 442 BC. First performed, the tragedy is the first performed piece of Sophocles' "Theban Trilogy", which also includes King Oedipus and Oedipus on Colonus .
- Antigone , daughter and sister of Oedipus, daughter and granddaughter of Iokaste
- Ismene , Antigone's sister
- Creon , King of Thebes, Antigone's uncle, brother of Iokaste
- Haimon , Antigone's fiancé, son of Creon and Eurydice
- Teiresias , seer
- Eurydice , Creon's wife
- First messenger
- Second messenger
- Choir , the elders of the city of Thebes, 15 men, including a choir leader
place and time
The piece takes place in mythical prehistoric times in the city-state of Thebes in Greece.
The background is the calamity that has been hanging over the rulers of Thebes for three generations, the house of the Labdakids . King Laios had committed an iniquity that resulted in his son Oedipus unwittingly slaying his father and in unwittingly marrying his mother Iokaste. He became the new king of Thebes and had four children with Iocaste: two daughters, Antigone and Ismene (who are also the sisters of Oedipus and the granddaughters of Iocaste), and two sons, Eteocles and Polynices (also the brothers of Oedipus and the grandchildren of Iokaste). After the deaths of Iokaste and Oedipus, the children grow up with Creon , their mother's brother. The sons (Antigone's brothers and nephews at the same time) are supposed to take turns in control, but they have become enemies over this. Polynices is banished; he gathers allies around him and tries to conquer the city with their help in the war of the seven against Thebes . In the decisive battle at the gates of Thebes, the brothers kill each other and the attackers are repulsed. Now Creon takes over the rule as the next male relative of the previous kings. He has his nephew Eteocles, who defended the city, buried according to custom. However, he leaves the body of Polynices, who had become the enemy of the city, at the gates of the city and forbids its proper burial. In doing so, Creon prevents the dead Polynices from entering the realm of the dead . A group of guards ensures compliance with his prohibition, which he combined with the threat of stoning . At this point the action begins.
Antigone tells her sister Ismene of Creon's forbidden burying of Polynices; she asks if she would be willing to help her with the funeral. Ismene refuses. It refers to Creon's prohibition and the shameful punishment of stoning; the task of women is not to oppose men and the stronger. Antigone explains to Ismene that she thinks their decision is wrong - the laws of the underworld gods dictate burial; Antigone does not try to change Ismene's mind. Ismene realizes that she is violating the law of the subterranean gods; for this she wants to ask her forgiveness. Antigone is looking forward to, she says, dying after the fact and lying with her dear brother forever. Ismene calls on Antigone to at least commit the crime in secret, Antigone rejects it. Ismene declares Antigone to be incomprehensible.
The choir's entry song is about the battle for Thebes. A dangerous warrior was approaching the city, Adrast of Argos, with whom Polynices had allied. The attackers wanted to set the city's towers on fire, but the Thebans were able to repel them; they relied on the help of the gods Zeus and Ares . The "terrible couple" (v. 144) killed each other in battle. Nike , the goddess of victory, cheers; now the struggle is to be forgotten and the victory celebrated.
1. Act / Epeisodion
Creon declares himself to be the new ruler of the city, referring to his close relatives with the previous rulers, Oedipus and his sons. The greatest good is one's own fatherland, which is why he ordered that Polynices should not be buried. The choir leader agrees: Kreon has the right to issue such an order.
An excited and fearful guard appears and reports that the ban has been violated. The body was covered with dust, the perpetrator is unknown. He describes in detail, a funny character, how much he fears he will be punished for the bad news. The choir leader cautiously asks whether divine law might not dictate burial after all. Creon angrily insists on the prohibition; he suspects that whoever transgressed did so for money. The guards of the corpse are threatened with death by him: If they do not find the culprit immediately, they should be crucified. With a play on words, the guard tries to explain to Creon the difference between the message and the messenger.
In the first stand song, the choir celebrates the tremendous deeds of man: Man dominates seafaring and agriculture, catching birds, catching fish and raising livestock. He taught himself to think, to speak and to run states. He can escape the snow and the rain; Although he cannot escape death, he has a grip on diseases that are difficult to cure. He uses the art of invention partly for the good and partly for the bad. In the city he enforces the laws of the land and the laws imposed by the gods; whoever does wrong will be banished from the city.
Act 2 / Epeisodion
The guards caught Antigone at the tomb of Polynices; one of them takes them to Creon. He tells the king how she covered the corpse with dust and lamented Polynices' death; he describes how relieved he is to have escaped the misfortune himself. Antigone admits her act straight away. It refers to the unwritten laws of the underworld god. They demand, she says, that the brother be buried regardless of whether he has done good or bad; the people of the city see it the same way, but do not dare to express it. If she has to die, it is only a gain, since she has lived a life full of suffering. Creon criticizes their rigidity and their arrogance; a woman would never rule him. He calls for Ismene. Ismene declares that she is willing to accept complicity. She is harshly rejected by Antigone.
In the final stand song the choir sings of the calamity ( Ate ) with which the Labdakid house was defeated.
3rd act / Epeisodion
A dispute ensues between Creon and his son Haimon , the Antigone's fiancé. Haimon first expresses his respect for his father, then reports that the people of the town regret the girl because she had committed a glorious deed, and finally asks Creon to change his mind. Creon explains that it means honoring those who violated order. Since the city is the property of the ruler, he alone has the right to decide on Antigone. The conversation becomes heated. Kreon accuses Haimon of defying his father, of being a woman's slave and a hollow head; Haimon opposes that the city does not belong to a single man, that Creon is violating the rights of the underworld gods and that he is crazy. If Antigone dies, he too, Haimon, will die; Creon will never see him again. Creon orders Antigone to be locked up alive in a burial chamber, and mocks her: In this tomb she can worship Hades, the god of the underworld, the only god she worships.
The third stand song is about Eros - the God of love, of desire. Eros confuses the minds of the righteous and has also provoked this quarrel between blood relatives. The shining eyes of Antigone would have triumphed and now threatened (this is how the choir sings about itself) even to dissuade the choir of the ancients from the path of the law.
4th act / Epeisodion
The fourth appearance contains Antigone's lament for the dead ( commos ). She laments that she will die unmarried. The choir leader replies that she is famous, is universally praised and that she goes to Hades autonomously ( autonomous , giving himself the law). She compares her fate to that of Niobe , who was turned into a rock. The choir leader replies that it is a great thing to die like a goddess; Antigone feels mocked by this. The choir leader remembers that she fell victim to the curse of the Labdakids; Antigone speaks of the crimes of Oedipus. Creon enters and urges the guards to get Antigone to the grave faster. She explains that she is looking forward to the realm of the dead because she hopes to see her parents and brothers there again. What she did for her brother, she says, she would never have done for her husband or for her children; these are replaceable - she could marry another man and have other children with him - but she cannot replace her brother, since father and mother are dead.
The fourth stand song is about cruel punishments: Danae was locked in an iron chamber, although she was of royal origin and had a child with Zeus. King Lycurgus of Thrace was locked in a stone prison by Dionysus because he had made diatribes against the god. The two sons of King Phineus were blinded by their stepmother Idaea with shuttle boats; they mourned the suffering of their mother Cleopatra, daughter of the wind god Boreas .
5th act / Epeisodion
Led by a boy, the blind seer Teiresias enters the scene and tells Creon of bad signs: the birds are aggressive, and the fire no longer rises from the altars - the gods no longer accept the prayers and the sacrifices. The reason, he says, is that the altars are tainted with body parts of Polynices that were dragged there by birds and dogs. The seer asks Creon to have Polynices buried. Creon insists on the ban and suspects Teiresias of having been bribed. Both get angry. Teiresias predicts that Creon will not have much longer to live and that the underworld gods would let one of his blood relatives die as punishment for failing to perform the funeral. The choir leader agrees with the king that Teiresias' predictions have always been correct since he was old. The choir leader advises Creon to get Antigone out of the crypt and bury Polynices. Creon agrees, which costs him great effort and sets out to free Antigone.
In the fifth stand song, the choir calls on the god Dionysus and reminds him of his connections with the city. Now that Thebes was afflicted with serious illness, may he appear in the city with his wild retinue, the Bacchantes .
Final scene / Exodos
A messenger reports that something terrible had happened to Creon, he is now a "living dead". In an exchange conversation with the choir leader, the messenger tells that Haimon killed himself out of anger at his father "because of the murder". Eurydice arrives, Creon's wife and Haimon's mother, and the messenger gives her the details: he first buried Polynices with Creon and then went with him to Antigone's grave. In the grave they saw Antigone, who had hanged herself, and found Haimon, who hugged her around the waist and complained about the "loss of the bed" and the act of her father. Haimon pulled his sword at Creon, missed it and then, furious at himself, threw himself into his sword and clung to the dead Antigone. Then he died.
After this report Eurydice goes into the house. The ensuing silence is eerie to both the messenger and the choir leader. The stretcher with Haimon's corpse is carried in and Kreon throws himself over it.
The choir leader, Creon and a messenger alternately sing the final lament. The choir leader explains that Creon's misfortune was due to his own fault. Creon agrees: It was his lack of insight that made him lose his son. A messenger reports that Eurydice also killed herself. She closed her eyelids after cursing Creon as a child murderer and then stabbing herself in the liver with a sharp sword. Creon complains that he himself is her murderer and wishes for an end to come. The choir leader criticizes him: There is no escape from the predetermined fate for mortals.
The piece ends with a moral teaching sung by the choir leader: Prudence is the highest happiness; the realm of the gods should not be desecrated; the great words of the boastful taught sensible reflection in old age after being atone by heavy blows.
Sophocles wrote his play Antigone in response to the banishment of Themistocles , the hero of the sea battle of Salamis , from Athens. In his work Sophocles deals with the morally justified rebellion against state order and violence as punishment for one's own downfall. Creon takes the position of a tyrant in this work. (Note: At that time, a “tyrant” was an absolute ruler who had achieved his rule by force and not necessarily, as it is today, that he exercised a tyranny. A tyrant could well be a peaceful ruler (e.g. Peisistratos ). The term only got its pejorative meaning at a later time.) Haimon advocates the rule of the people and disapproves of the sole rule of his father: "This is not a state that only belongs to one" (v. 737). Creon, on the other hand, adheres to the law and to punish anyone who breaks it. He sees order and discipline as the most suitable protection for the common good: " Where the ranks stand in order, obedience protects a thousand lives from danger ". Creon is only concerned that the laws are obeyed, even if they arise from his delusion towards the law and the good of the people. Only those who are able to control licentiousness can defend themselves successfully against enemies: “ If I disobey my own tribe, how do I tame strangers? ". But these laws can only be drawn up by one man at the same time. Creon is convinced of the superiority of men over women. In this way, the world of politics is only assigned to the man, the woman has nothing to say here. Antigone is guilty of two violations of the law: She did not obey Creon's law not to bury her brother and did not accept the role she was supposed to play as a woman, which states that she must submit to her husband and stay away from any political events.
In addition, Sophocles deals with the contrast between the “eternally” valid ethical value system and short-lived daily politics. It becomes clear that the gap between the two areas cannot be bridged. Nevertheless, it becomes clear which system Sophocles attaches more importance to - the religious-ethical system for which the figure of Antigone ultimately stands. Sophocles sees in a “good” person an individually acting being who is nevertheless godly. Creon, however, lacks this reverence for the gods: he is guilty of hubris and is punished by the gods with the fact that he loses his own family; his son's and wife's life ends in suicide. Through this severe blow of fate, however, Creon also experiences his own purification and is led back on the right path.
A theme like that of Antigone is very typical of the ancient Greek tragedy, through which the audience should also be morally purified. According to the Aristotelian poetics, ancient tragedy is understood as the imitation of a self-contained action of suitable scope in attractively formed language, which is supposed to evoke wailing / emotion ( eleos ) and shuddering / horror ( phobos ) (note: the current German translation of " eleos ”and“ phobos ”with“ pity and fear ”according to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is somewhat misleading!) and thereby causes a cleansing ( catharsis ) of such states of excitement.
In the Phenomenology of Spirit of 1807, Hegel analyzes the Greek city-state, the polis, and refers to Antigone for this ; the name only comes up twice, but the experts agree that Antigone is everywhere in the background. According to Hegel, the play testifies to the conflictual morality of the polis. He understands morality to be the direct identification of the individual with the community without reflective distance. In the polis, morality takes on two coexistence forms, the morality of family and kin, embodied by Antigone, and the morality of the city-state, represented by Creon. The morality of the family rests on the "divine law", on the unwritten laws of kinship solidarity, of which the myths tell; this form of morality is the woman's sphere. The morality of the city-state is based on "human law," laws and ordinances made by people; in this sphere of morality the man rules. Within the family, the purest relationship is that between brother and sister; they do not desire one another and are free individuality against one another.
For the Antigone reception, a remark by Hegel in the lectures on the philosophy of religion is of great importance; Hegel gave these lectures four times between 1821 and 1831; an edition edited by Marheineke appeared from his notes and from listeners' transcripts in 1832 and an expanded version of this edition in 1840. About the tragedies of Sophocles it says here:
“The collision of the two highest moral powers against each other is represented in a plastic way in the absolute example of tragedy, Antigone; then the family love, the sacred, the inner, belonging to the sensation, which is why it is also called the law of the lower gods, comes into collision with the law of the state. Creon is not a tyrant, but a moral power as well. Creon is not wrong; he maintains that the law of the state and the authority of the government are respected and punishment follows from violation. Each of these two sides only realizes one of the moral powers, has only one of them as its content. That is one-sidedness, and the meaning of eternal justice is that both gain injustice because they are one-sided, but with it both are also right. "
In the lectures on aesthetics , Hegel repeatedly refers to Antigone ; he gave these lectures four times between 1820 and 1829; a compilation based on his notes and listeners' transcripts appeared in 1835. Hegel speaks here of Antigone as "one of the most sublime works of art of all time, most excellent in every respect"; He emphasizes that the protagonists also belong to the opposite sphere, Antigone is a king's daughter and Haimon's fiancée is also a member of the world of the state, Creon is also part of a family. "So that is inherent in both of them, against which they alternately rise up, and they are grasped and broken in what belongs to the circle of their own existence."
The Hegelian interpretation dominates in the works of August Boeckh On the Antigone of Sophocles (1824) and of Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm Hinrichs The essence of ancient tragedy. Carried out on the two Oedipus of Sophocles in general and on Antigone in particular (1827). From Vischer she will be influential aesthetics or science of beauty presented in detail (1846-58).
Goethe's Iphigenie (1779, 1786) is partly based on the Antigone of Sophocles: The confrontation between the absolute ruler and Iphigenia, which opposes his command (5th act, 3rd scene), traces the clash between Creon and Antigone; Thoas' loneliness at the end corresponds to Creon's; the Parzenlied is based on the choir songs of Antigone .
Goethe expresses himself directly on the Antigone des Sophocles in the conversations with Eckermann on March 28th and April 1st, 1827. The starting point is Hinrichs' work on ancient tragedy, which appeared in the same year.
For the tragic, Goethe explains, the only decisive factor is that there is an indissoluble conflict; the conflict between family and state, which Hinrichs (with Hegel) focuses on, is only one of many possible tragic contradictions.
According to Goethe, Kreon acts out of hatred of the dead, and by no means, as Hinrichs asserts with Hegel, out of state virtue. The death of Polynices would have sufficed; the prohibition of burial was not a state virtue, but a state crime.
Creon and Ismene are necessary for the piece in order to develop the heroine's “beautiful soul”. "Everything noble is of a quiet nature and seems to sleep until it is awakened and challenged by contradiction." Such a contradiction is the relationship with Ismene before the deed of Antigone and that with Creon after the deed.
There is a passage in the piece that Goethe considers a “spot”; he wants a philologist to find out one day that it is fake. He is referring to the passage in Lamentation where Antigone declares that what she did for her brother, she never did for her husband or her children, since they are replaceable and her brother is not. This motif appears to Goethe “as a dialectical calculation”, as subtle; he says that it "almost touches the comic".
In 1841 the composer Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy wrote an incidental music for stage performances in the German translation of Donner . The order for this was given to him by the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. The composition for male choir and orchestra (op. 55) comprises the seven choral pieces and an overture . The first performance took place on October 28, 1841 in the royal private theater in the Neues Palais in Potsdam , the first public premiere on March 5, 1842 in Leipzig.
Further use of the substance
The Antigone translation by Friedrich Hölderlin , published in 1804, is today considered a literary masterpiece. His interpretation of the tragedy, from the same year, is entitled Notes on Antigona .
Antigone is one of Sophocles' most influential works, along with King Oedipus ; numerous adaptations bear witness to this.
In addition to Sophocles, the Antigone myth also served as a literary model for many other authors, including: The Antigone of the Phoinissenes of Euripides (411/408 BC), Luigi Alamanni (1533), Trapolini (1581), Robert Garnier (1580), Jean Rotrou (1638), Jean Racine ( La Thebaides ou les freres ennemi , 1664), Vittorio Alfieri (1783), PS Pierre-Simon Ballanche (novel 1814), Friedrich Heinrich Bothe ( Der Ödeipiden Fall oder die Brüder , 1822), Wilhelm Frohne (1852), Eugen Reichel (1877), Houston Stewart Chamberlain ( The Death of Antigone , 1915), Walter Hasenclever (1917), Jean Cocteau (1922), Jean Anouilh (1942), Elisabeth Langgässer ( The Faithful Antigone , short story, 1947 ), Bertolt Brecht ( Antigone des Sophokles , 1948), Felix Lützkendorf ( Die cyprísche Antigone , 1957) and Rolf Hochhuth ( Die Berliner Antigone , Novelle, 1963).
Karl Gustav Vollmoeller's adaptation and translation for the stage (1906) led Max Reinhardt to stage his adaptation several times on his stages between 1906 and 1911. Vollmoeller based the interpretation of the figures on his compatriot Hölderlin .
There are about 25 Antigone operas, u. a. : Benedetto Pasqualigo / Giuseppe Maria Orlandini (1718), Coltelini / Tommaso Traetta (Antigona, 1772), Antonio Sacchini (Guilard 1778), Jean-François Marmontel / Niccolo Zingarelli (1790), Arthur Honegger (with J. Cocteau's text 1927), Carl Orff (“ Antigonae ”, with Hölderlin's text 1949), Georg Katzer (“Antigone or Die Stadt”, 1991), Mikis Theodorakis (“Antigone”, 1996) and Carlos Stella (“Antigonai”, 2009).
In 1961, the material by Yorgos Javellas was presented as a black and white film with the title Antigone at the Berlinale .
In his book The Principle of Responsibility, the philosopher Hans Jonas takes up the choir's first stand song in Sophocles Antigone as an ancient example of dealing with human technology. Even Martin Heidegger comment on this choral song with respect to the containing essential determination of man.
- Hugh Lloyd-Jones, NG Wilson (ed.): Sophoclis Fabulae. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1990, 2nd corr. Ed., 1992, ISBN 0-19-814577-2 (historical-critical edition, best edition of the Greek text)
- Sophocles: Antigone. Greek / German. Translation, notes and afterword by Norbert Zink, Greek text based on the edition by AC Pearson. Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 1981.
- Sophocles: Oedipus the tyrant. Antigone. German by Friedrich Hölderlin , introduced by Wolfgang Schadewaldt. Fischer-Bücherei, Frankfurt am Main 1957. The Hölderlin translation can be found on the Internet at Projekt Gutenberg .
- Sophocles: Antigone. Translated by Friedrich Hölderlin, edited by Martin Walser and Edgar Selge. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-458-32948-X .
- Sophocles: Antigone. Edited and transmitted by Wolfgang Schadewaldt . With an essay, history of impact and illustrations. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1974, ISBN 3-458-31770-8 .
- Sophocles: Antigone. Text and materials. Edited by Herbert Fuchs and Dieter Seiffert. Series of classic school reading. ed. by Ekkehart Mittelberg . Cornelsen, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-464-60139-0 .
- Antigone of Sophocles. Translated and arranged for the stage by Karl Gustav Vollmoeller . S. Fischer Verlag, Berlin 1906.
- Antigone by Sophocles . Translated by Michael Gitlbauer after reviewing the Greek text himself . With setting of the vocal parts by Richard Kralik . Braumüller, Stuttgart / Vienna 1897.
- Judith Butler : Antigone's Desires: Relationship Between Life and Death. From the American by Reiner Ansén. With an afterword by Bettine Menke. 3. Edition. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-518-12187-1 .
- Jacques Derrida : glass. Éditions Galilée, Paris 1974, ISBN 2-7186-0015-2 (on Hegel's Antigone interpretation, pp. 164-211); German glass: death knell. Translated by Hans-Dieter Gondek and Markus Sedlacek. Fink, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-7705-4110-3 .
- Herbert Fuchs, Dieter Seiffert: Sophocles: Antigone. Lesson comment. Series of classic school reading. ed. by Ekkehart Mittelberg. Cornelsen, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-464-60140-4 .
- Luce Irigaray : The eternal irony of the community ... In: Dies .: Speculum. Mirror of the opposite sex (1974). From the French v. Xenia Rajewsky, Gabriele Ricke, Gerburg Treusch-Dieter a. Regine Othmer. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-518-10946-4 , pp. 266-281 (on Hegel's Antigone interpretation).
- Walter Jens : Antigone interpretations . In: Jan Diller (ed.): Sophokles. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1967, pp. 295-311.
- Jacques Lacan : The essence of tragedy. A commentary on Sophocles' Antigone . In: Ders .: Das Seminar, Book VII (1959–1960). The ethics of psychoanalysis. Text produced by Jacques-Alain Miller, translated by Norbert Haas. Quadriga Verlag, Weinheim and Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-88679-910-7 , lectures from May 25, 1960, June 1, 1960, June 8, 1960 and June 15, 1960. In French on the Internet at Staferla .
- Thomas Möbius: Sophocles: Antigone. King's Explanations: Text Analysis and Interpretation (Vol. 41). C. Bange Verlag , Hollfeld 2011, ISBN 978-3-8044-1937-7 .
- Gerhard Müller: Antigone. C. Winter, Heidelberg 1967.
- Otto Pöggeler : Fate and History. Antigone in the mirror of interpretations and designs since Hegel and Holderlin. Wilhelm Fink, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7705-4047-6 .
- George Steiner : The Antigones. Past and Present of a Myth (1984). Translated from the English by Martin Pfeiffer. Hanser, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-446-14850-7 ; Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-423-04536-1 .
- Norbert Zink: Sophocles' Antigone. Basics and thoughts to understand the drama. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1999, 11th edition, ISBN 3-425-06383-9 .
- Beate Herfurth-Uber: "Sophocles: Antigone, hearing & learning. Knowledge compact in 80 minutes", recording of a production at the Plauen-Zwickau theater, interviews with Prof. Thomas Paulsen (holder of the chair for Greek studies, Frankfurt / Main) and the director Karl Georg Kayser, MultiSkript Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-9812218-8-6 , audio CD.
- Perseus Digital Library Greek text edited and with an introduction and notes provided by Richard Jebb. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1891
- Internet Archive Greek text, edited, introductory and annotated by Theodore D. Woolsey. Munroe, Boston and Cambridge 1854
- Internet Archive Greek text, edited by Guilielmus Dindorfius ( Wilhelm Dindorf ). Didot, Paris 1836
- Otto Schönberger translation into German prose from 2013
- ↑ "[...] ἔμψυχον ἡγοῦμαι νεκρόν." V. 1167.
- ↑ Phenomenology of Mind, VI. The spirit, A. The true spirit. Morality, parts a and b.
- ↑ On the influence of this remark on the Antigone reception cf. George Steiner: The Antigones. History and present of a myth. dtv, Munich 1990, pp. 53 f., 58-60.
- ↑ Part 2, Section 2, II.3.a; Marheineke edition from 1840, p. 133 f .; Suhrkamp Werke 17, p. 132 f.
↑ Cf. GWF Hegel: Lectures on Aesthetics . In: Ders .: Works. Edited by DH Marheinike et al., Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1835. Vol. 10, Department 1–3, ed. v. HG Hotho.
Remarks on Antigone can be found at the following places in the lectures on aesthetics:
In the first volume: Part 1, Chapter 3, B.II.3.a. “The general powers of action”, B.II.3.b. “The acting individuals”, B.III.3. “The external appearance of the ideal work of art in relation to the audience” (Suhrkamp, Werke 13, pp. 287, 301, 354).
In the second volume: Part 2, Section 2, Chapter 1, 1.2.b. "The old gods in contrast to the new", 1.3.b. "Preservation of the old gods in the art representation", 2nd chapter, 2.a. “Concept of love”, 2.c. “Chance of love” (Suhrkamp, Werke 14, pp. 60, 69, 184, 189 f.).
In the third volume: Part 3, Section 3, Chapter 3, C.III.3.c. “The concrete development of dramatic poetry and its types” (Suhrkamp, Werke 15, pp. 544, 549 f.).
- ↑ Part 2, Section 2, Chapter 1, 1.2.b. (Suhrkamp, Werke 14, p. 60)
- ↑ Part 3, Section 3, Chapter 3, C.III.3.c. "The concrete development of dramatic poetry and its types" (Suhrkamp, Werke 15, p. 549)
- ↑ George Steiner: The Antigones. Past and Present of a Myth (1984). Translated from the English by Martin Pfeiffer. Hanser, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-446-14850-7 ; Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-423-04536-1 , p. 64 f.
- ^ Johann Peter Eckermann: Conversations with Goethe in the last years of his life. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 9th edition. 2006.
- ↑ Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847): Antigone. on: Klassika
- ↑ Notes on the Antigonä. In: Ders .: All works and letters in 3 volumes. Edited by Michael Knaupp. Munich / Vienna 1992, Vol. 2, pp. 309-316. Since Hölderlin was a classical philologist, he probably wanted to use this spelling to indicate that the η at the end of the name should be pronounced neither dumb German nor Greek -i, but with a long German ä.
- ↑ a b c Elisabeth Frenzel in: Otto Leggewie, Hubert Lenzen, Josef Reiner Zinken (eds.): Texts on antiquity - From Plato to Heisenberg. Herder, Freiburg 1967, pp. 79-81.
- ^ Jonas, Hans: The principle of responsibility , Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main, 1st edition 1984, ISBN 3-518-37585-7 , p. 17.
- ↑ Heidegger, Martin, 1889–1976 .: Introduction to Metaphysics . Vittorio Klostermann, 1983, OCLC 1010935067 .