Recruitment agreement

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Recruitment agreements are bilateral contracts or agreements that are intended to regulate the immigration and emigration of workers between states and usually contain regulations on residence law and labor law .


The spread of man in the world is an essential part of human history. In some states of settled people , known as early high cultures and characterized by agriculture , legal regulations on labor migration , often in the form of slavery , can already be found in antiquity .

20th century Europe

In the course of expanding industrialization in Europe, France had to struggle with a labor shortage from the mid- 19th century due to falling birth rates , while the other European countries had higher birth rates and were therefore emigration countries . The bottleneck on the French labor market was exacerbated by the Franco-German War (1870/71) and the First World War (1914-18). As a result, France concluded recruitment agreements with Italy (1919), Poland (1919), Czechoslovakia (1920) and in the following yearsSpain (1932). Even after the Second World War , France concluded new labor recruitment agreements with Italy (1946), Greece (1960), Spain (1963), Portugal (1964), Morocco (1964), Tunisia (1964), Turkey (1965) and Yugoslavia (1965).

During the period of National Socialism , Germany signed a recruitment agreement with Italy on December 3, 1937 to make up for its shortage of workers in the armaments industry and agriculture .

Post-war Germany

A total of nine recruitment agreements were concluded between the Federal Republic of Germany and other states between 1955 and 1968 . They regulated the initially planned temporary work stay of foreign workers as so-called " guest workers ".

Similar agreements existed for so-called contract workers in the GDR with Vietnam , Cuba , Nicaragua , Madgermanes from Mozambique , Poland , Hungary , Yemen and Angola .

Chronological list

Recruitment Agreement of the Federal Republic 1955 to 1968

The recruitment agreements of the Federal Republic of Germany were concluded with the following countries:

country date government
Recruitment agreement with Italy December 20, 1955 Cabinet Adenauer II
Recruitment agreement with Spain March 29, 1960 Cabinet Adenauer III
Recruitment agreement with Greece March 30, 1960 Cabinet Adenauer III
Recruitment agreement with Turkey October 30, 1961 Cabinet Adenauer III
Recruitment agreement with Morocco May 21, 1963 Cabinet Adenauer V
Recruitment Agreement with South Korea December 16, 1963 Cabinet Erhard I
Recruitment agreement with Portugal March 17, 1964 Cabinet Erhard I
Recruitment agreement with Tunisia October 7, 1965 Cabinet Erhard I
Recruitment Agreement with Yugoslavia October 12, 1968 Kiesinger cabinet

On April 28, 1965, legal issues such as B. Residence permits enact a law on foreigners .

Recruitment stop

In 1973, under the Brandt I cabinet, recruitment was completely stopped in view of the oil crisis . On September 17, 1998, regulations were introduced for an internal transfer of skilled workers: § 4 Paragraph 7 and 8 Recruitment Stop Exception Ordinance (ASAV) enabled mobility within internationally operating companies, § 9 No. 2 of the Work Permit Ordinance (ArGV) allowed these companies to employ executive staff Posting position within the company to Germany without a work permit.

In 2000, the recruitment ban was overridden when Germany created a special regulation with its green card that was initially limited to 10,000 and then to 20,000 foreign highly qualified IT specialists. On the basis of the special regulation, these received a residence status limited to five years.


When labor became scarce during the post-war boom, Austria entered international recruitment policy late. 1962 through a treaty with Spain, 1964 with Turkey and 1965/66 with Yugoslavia. The social partners had previously agreed in the secret Raab- Olah Agreement on the stability of prices and wages, the quota for labor migration and the time limitation (rotation) based on seasonal work experience.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Slavery sociology , Encyclopædia Britannica .
  2. Leviticus 25: 44-46.
  3. ^ A b Historical development , Federal Agency for Civic Education .
  4. Chronicle table on
  5. ^ Aliens Act .
  6. Labor migration. Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI), 2017, accessed on July 10, 2017 .
  7. Holger Kolb: Pragmatic Routine and Symbolic Staging - Three Years “Green Card”. In: Social science specialist information service soFid Migration and Ethnic Minorities 2003/2, pp. 7-16. 2003, accessed July 10, 2017 . P. 12 f.
  8. ^ Sylvia Hahn, Georg Stöger: 50 years of the Austrian-Turkish recruitment agreement . University of Salzburg 2014, p. 4 f.