Berthold I. (Zähringen)
Berthold was a descendant of Count Bezelin von Villingen . Berthold, who was probably related to the Staufers on his mother's side, was a count in various domains such as the Ortenau , the Thurgau , the Breisgau and the Baar and thus one of the most influential counts in the Duchy of Swabia . Henry III. promised his partisan Berthold that he would be ducal there.
Heinrich's widow Agnes von Poitou , however, enfeoffed Rudolf von Rheinfelden with the duchy in 1057 , but promised to enfeoff Berthold with the next free duchy. Berthold's renunciation of his claim was finally rewarded with the title of Duke of Carinthia and that of Margrave of Verona, which made the Zähringer rise to the nobility . As a foreigner, however, like his predecessor Konrad III. Difficulties in really enforcing the rights from these titles in Carinthia and Verona. Berthold seldom stayed in his duchy, the actual power, especially in the southern Carinthian parts of the country, was exercised by Markwart IV of Eppenstein in a kind of "counter-duchy". Lampert von Hersfeld even reports that Berthold was deposed for the period 1072/73, but this is controversial.
In the course of the investiture controversy, Berthold, like his southern dukes from Swabia and Bavaria, Rudolf von Rheinfelden and Welf IV , opposed King Heinrich IV. He supported the election of Rudolf as the anti -king and was therefore deposed as duke at the Reichstag in Ulm in 1077 and ostracized. Markwart's son Luitpold von Eppenstein was named the new Duke of Carinthia .
Berthold withdrew to his own Swabian possession, which after his ostracism was exposed to the constant attack of royal troops. Berthold died on November 6, 1078 on his Limburg near Weilheim an der Teck and was buried in Hirsau Monastery, where he had significantly supported the construction of the monastery church.
Berthold's first marriage was Richwara, daughter of Duke Konrad II of Carinthia . The two had five known children:
- Hermann I. , founder of the line of the Margraves of Baden
- Luitgard * around 1047, ∞ Dierpold II. In Thurgau, Margrave in Nordgau * 1033, † August 7, 1078
- Richinza von Spitzenberg, 1. ∞ H. von Frickingen, 2. ∞ Ludwig von Sigmaringen
- Berthold II. , Duke of Swabia, later of Zähringen
- Gebhard III. , Bishop of Constance
His first daughter Liutgard († August 9, around 1119) was married to Margrave Diepold II von Vohburg and Ernst I von Grögling . His second daughter Richinza was married to a (Rudolf) von Frickingen in her first marriage and to Ludwig von Sigmaringen in her second marriage . She inherited the Spitzenberg Castle and the area belonging to it, thus establishing the Sigmaringen - Spitzenberg - Helfenstein line .
In his second marriage, Berthold I was married to Beatrix, a daughter of Ludwig von Mousson , Count von Mömpelgard. There is a known child from this second marriage:
- Mathilda von Thurgau / Turigowe (von Zähringen) ∞ Berchtoldo von Steinegge called "von Witilinchoven" * October 15, 1032.
- Leopold Auer : Berthold I., Hzg. V. Carinthia. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Vol. 1, 1980, Col. 2026.
- Heinz Bühler: Richinza von Spitzenberg and her relatives. A contribution to the history of the Counts of Helfenstein . In: Württembergisch Franken , Heft 58 (1974), pp. 303–326.
- Eduard Hlawitschka : On the descent of Richwaras, the wife of Duke Berthold I of Zähringen . In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine , Vol. 154 (2006), pp. 1-20.
- Gerd Tellenbach : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 159 ( ).
- Georg von Wyss : Bertold I, Duke of Zähringen . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, pp. 534-536.
- Alfons Zettler: Who was Count Bertold, who in 999 by Emperor Otto III. received the market rights for Villingen? in: Annual issue of the History and Homeland Association Villingen 23 , 1999/2000, pp. 9–14 ( digitized version )
- Eduard Heyck: History of the Dukes of Zähringen , Freiburg im Breisgau 1891-1892, reprint Aalen 1980, ISBN 3-511-00945-6 , pp. 3-16 ( digitized version )
- Necrologium minus Monasterii S. Petri Nigrae Silvae . In: Monumenta Germaniae historica - Necrologia Germania , Vol. 1, Berlin 1888, p. 336 ( digitized version ).
Duke of Carinthia
Margrave of Verona
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Berthold the Bearded; Zähringen, Berthold Duke of|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Duke of Carinthia, Margrave of Verona|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1000|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 6, 1078|
|Place of death||Weilheim an der Teck|