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The Deonomastik deals with words that are derived from names. This makes it a sub-discipline of historical linguistics at the intersection of name research , vocabulary and word formation research . Their subject area are the deonyms , that is, those parts of a vocabulary that are derived from proper names (nomina propria) . These are on the one hand generic names (appellatives), substance names (continuatives), verbs , adjectives or interjections , which are each derived from proper names, and on the other hand derived proper names, provided that these (such as place names derived from personal names) are derived from other proper names have arisen.

Deonomastics opens up the deonym inventory of a word and name vocabulary etymologically and lexicographically and examines the semantic and cognitive processes of the metaphorical and metonymical or synecdochal transfer of meaning and the morphological and possibly phraseological formation processes that come into play in the deonymization of proper names.


The term deonomastics is a Latin and Greek- based new creation (from Latin de "from, ab" and ὀνομαστικόν ónomastikón " name- related "), which the Italian linguist Enzo La Stella introduced in 1982 in a fundamental contribution to the methodical and terminological formation of deonomastics, by deriving the contraction deonomastico (later Germanized as Deonomastikon, plural Deonomastika ) from Italian derivativo onomastico ("derivation from a name") and from this also derived the name of the discipline ( la deonomastica "the deonomastics"). As a name for the discipline, this concept formation has since established itself particularly in Romance and German-speaking linguistics .

For the proper name as the basis of a derivation, for which in the previous research no separate terminus technicus was customary apart from the generally used terms for proper names ( toponym , anthroponym , ethnonym etc.) , the term eponym has become common after La Stella (from Greek ἐπι "an, at, after" and ὀνομα "name"). With a shift in meaning from the bearer of the name to the latter's name, which has been sporadic in the ancient sciences since the 19th century, this use of the term ties in with the main meaning of the term in ancient and ancient scholarly usage in the sense of "eponymous, name giver", according to which a Eponym is the bearer of a proper name (usually a mythical or historical founder figure) to which an ethno- or toponym is traced back (see eponymous hero ), or an official ( archon , consul or other "eponymous official"), with his name in dates the calendar period of his term of office was named (see Archon eponymos , list of eponyms )

For the result of the derivation, in turn, the name derivative, for which terms such as proper noun or appellative name were used in the older German technical language, the term deonym / deonymic derivation has established itself in deonomics following a concept introduced in German by Wolfgang Fleischer , while the term deonomasticon coined by La Stella for this was less able to assert itself in this meaning, but was retained mainly as a generic term (in analogy to [βιβλίον] ὀνομαστικόν "book about names, onomasticon ") for a dictionary of deonyms.

In the English-speaking or English-language linguistics and in Slavic studies, insofar as they also deal with derivations from proper names and have not followed the deonomastic terminology in the succession of La Stella, the result of the derivation is referred to as an eponym , without a fixed counter-term for the proper name on which it is based, which is neither terminologically nor often subject to a distinction from its derived or appellative use. This use of the term eponym ties in with a shift in meaning that emerged in American English in the 19th century , in which the meaning of the term was transferred from the name bearer not to his name, but to the derivation from his name. Outside of linguistics, it is particularly widespread in the history of science and technology as well as in popular science literature, where it is mostly about "commemorative" deductions from the names of discoverers, first descriptors and other historical persons or about appellations of brand names , but it also has in the linguistic literature Literature has moved in, where it has been criticized as "less appropriate" and a source of possible misunderstandings, but still competes with the deonomastic terminology in the successor to La Stella.

The process of deriving a deonym from an eponym brought about by the use of language or a naming institution in the understanding of deonomastics is called deonomysation . The complementary term eponymization is not established linguistically, but a technical term from the ancient sciences , which thus describes the reinterpretation of a given toponym or ethnonym by deriving from the name of a mythical or historical individual, because here the given name interpreted as derived with an eponym in the sense a primary name bearer is provided. As a kind of synonym for deonymization and at the same time as a term for the scientific investigation of deonyms and for their subject area, however, English is sometimes used. eponymy and French éponymie used, while the term, just like in German eponymy, is otherwise defined in ancient science, as a designation for the function and term of office of an eponymous civil servant (then synonymous with eponymate ), or as a designation for a speaking name or surname in turn, in the sense of a geographical or genealogical attribution, can be deonymically derived from a proper name, but can also serve to emphasize the characteristics of the name bearer without such a derivation relationship.

Examples of deonyms

To an individual representative:

Deonyms from personal names:

from ethnonyms:

  • English shopping - shopping without paying, i.e. stealing
  • recommend yourself in French - go away without saying goodbye
  • Ciao! - Italian greeting , abbreviation from schiavo (vostro) ("Your servants!"), From Latin sclavus " slave "

from toponyms:

  • Berliner - Berlin-style pastries
  • Pils - beer from the city of Pilsen , then generally "beer according to the brewing method of the city of Pilsen"
  • wienern - " clean white leather with Viennese lime ", then generally "clean clean"

from company and brand names :

See also


  • Vincent Balnat: L'appellativisation du prénom. Etude contrastive allemand-français. XI. Narr, Tübingen 2018 (= Tübingen Contributions to Linguistics, 565). [Attachment: ]
  • Paolo D'Achille, Enzo Caffarelli (eds.): Lessicografia e onomastica 2. Atti delle Giornate internazionali di Studio (Università degli Studi Roma Tre, 14-16 February 2008) / Lexicografy and Onomastics 2. Proceedings from the International Study Days (Roma Tre University, February 14th-16th, 2008). Società Editrice Romana, Rome 2008 (= Quaderni Internazional di “Rivista internazionale di onomastica” 3).
  • Jean-Pierre Chambon et al. (Ed.): Onomastics and Lexicography, Deonomastics. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2002 (= Onomastics. Files of the 18th International Congress for Name Research. Volume 5), ISBN 3-484-55518-1 .
  • Consuelo García Gallarín, Celeste García Gallarin: Deonomástica Hispánica: vocabulario científico, humanístico y jergal. Ed. Complutense, Madrid, ISBN 84-89784-12-4 .
  • Heike Hornbruch: Deonomastika: adjectives based on proper names in the older tradition of German. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1996 (= Studies on Old High German 31), ISBN 3-525-20346-2 .
  • Rudolf Köster: Proper names in the German vocabulary. A lexicon. de Gruyter, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-11-017702-1 .
  • Enzo La Stella: Deonomastica: lo studio dei vocaboli derivati ​​da nomi propri. In: Le lingue del mondo. Volume 47, 1982. pp. 13-18; I deonomastici nella guerra e nelle esplorazioni, ibid., Pp. 111-116; I deonomastici e l '"homo faber œconomico", ibid, pp. 208-212; I deonomastici nella vita quotidiana, ibid, pp. 300-305; I deonomastici nella politica e nella letteratura, ibid, pp. 394-398; I deonomastici nati dalle vicende storiche italiane, ibid, pp. 493-499
  • Enzo La Stella: Dalie, dedali e damigiane: dal nome proprio al nome comune. Dizionario storico di deonomastica, vocaboli derivati ​​da nomi propri, con le corrispondenti forme francesi, inglesi, spagnole e tedesche . Zanichelli, Bologna 1990, ISBN 88-08-07024-7 .
  • Wolfgang Schweickard : «Deonomastics». Derivations based on proper names in French (with comparative consideration of Italian, Romanian and Spanish). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1992 (Supplements to the Journal of Romance Philology, Volume 241)
  • Wolfgang Schweickard: Deonomasticon Italicum. Dizionario storico dei derivati ​​da nomi geografici e da nomi di persona. Volume 1: Derivati ​​da nomi geografici: A – E. 2002. Volume 2: Derivati ​​da nomi geografici: F – L. 2006. Volume 3: Derivati ​​da nomi geografici: MQ. 2009. Volume 4: Derivati ​​da nomi geografici: R – Z. 2013. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2002–2013

Web links

Wiktionary: Deonymization  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Eponym  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


  1. La Stella: Deonomastica… (1982), p. 13: "La DEONOMASTICA studia l'origine e l'evoluzione semantica dei derivativi onomastici", "Abbiamo pertanto optato per DEONOMASTICO, forma contratta ea tutti comprensibile di derivativo onomastico "
  2. ^ La Stella: Deonomastica ... (1982), p. 13: "il" generante "o EPONIMO"; ibid: "Abbiamo visto che eponimo è l'individuo dal cui nome deriva un vocabolo comune"; ibid, p. 14: "In sintesi: l ' eponimo (nome proprio) dà origine al deonomastico (vocabolo comune) attraverso la banalizzazione "; ders., I deonomastici nella guerra… (1982), p. 111: " Eponimo è il nome proprio (di persona o antroponimo, di popolo o etnonimo, di luogo o toponimo dal quale, attraverso il processo di banalizzazione, deriva il deonomastico, nome comune. ")
  3. ^ Wilhelm Wackernagel : The German appellative names. In: Germania 4 (1859), pp. 129-159; 5 (1860), pp. 290-356
  4. ^ Wolfgang Fleischer: Deonymic derivation. 1980. Reprinted in ders: Name and text. Selected studies on onomastics and style. Edited by Irmhild Bartz. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1992, pp. 58-66, p. 58
  5. George Elliott Howard: An introduction to the local constitutional history of the United States. Baltimore 1889, p. 242: "The Party [...] derives its eponym from the oldest and chief member of the patry"; anonymous, Naming the Streets, in: Morning Oregonian 29 (Portland, Oregon, June 28, 1891), p. 4: "Each street, so named, will bear an historical eponym of local fame"; Morris M. Cohn, An introduction to the study of the Constitution, Baltimore 1892, p. 148: "They [the Athenians] carried the eponym of the clan or gens which had the largest possessions", first lexkiographic reference then in Abala Kanta Sen, The student's comprehensive Anglo-Bengali dictionary, compiled from the best modern lexicons, Calcutta 1892, p. 398, p. v. Eponym, Eponyms: "a name, as of a country or people, derived from that of an individual"
  6. Schweickard: Deonomastik ... (1992), p. 4
  7. Rejecting Schweickard: Deonomastik… (1992), p. 4; Valerie Alia: A new view of eponomy: power, politics, and protection. In: Jean-Pierre Chambon et al. (Ed.): Onomastik und Lexikographie, Deonomastik… (2002), pp. 93-98, continues to use eponymy in this sense, although it introduces the ancient scientific meaning as a person designation for the bearer of the Primary name.