Energy certificate

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The energy pass is a document that is intended to provide data on energy efficiency and the energy costs incurred in a building . It should enable a comparison between properties that potential tenants or buyers can incorporate into their rental or purchase decision. Since 2009 the energy certificate has been compulsory for all residential buildings in Germany. In the case of renting or selling, the energy performance certificate must be presented to potential tenants or buyers without being asked at the latest during the inspection and handed over after the conclusion of the contract. Since the amendment to the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV), which has been in force since May 1, 2014, sellers or landlords have already had to state the energy efficiency standard in the property advertisement. Anyone who deliberately or carelessly fails to do this, does not do this completely or in time, can expect a fine of up to 15,000 euros.

The issuance, use, principles and basics of energy certificates are regulated in Germany in the EnEV, in Austria by the respective state laws and the Energy Certificate Template Act (EAVG). These legal standards are intended to implement Directive 2010/31 / EU of the European Community of May 19, 2010 on the overall energy efficiency of buildings (new version), which replaced the earlier Directive 2002/91 / EC .

Germany: Energy pass according to the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV)


Sample of a consumption-based energy certificate
Sample of a consumption-based energy certificate

The German Energy Agency (dena) developed the prototype of a nationwide energy certificate under the name Energy pass for residential buildings in the portfolio and tested it in a field trial by the end of 2004, almost 4,000 residential buildings.

The Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) uses the term energy pass for the public certificate .

The term energy-saving card is sometimes used in Germany and Austria.


Building thermography: thermography of a building wall
Consumption-based energy certificate

In accordance with the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV), an energy demand certificate must be issued when building, changing or expanding buildings.

A potential buyer, tenant, leaseholder or lessee of a built-up property, apartment or part ownership must be given an energy certificate immediately upon request ( Section 16 (2) EnEV). This does not apply to small buildings with a usable area of ​​up to 50 m² and architectural monuments (Section 16 (5) EnEV).

It has not been clarified whether it is sufficient for the promptness (ie "without undue hesitation") to quickly seek such identification after being requested by the potential contractual partner and to present it quickly upon receipt; then no ID would have to be obtained in advance.

Only in the event that a building is used mixed as a residential and non-residential building, energy certificates can be issued for parts of the building (see Section 22 EnEV). In all other cases, especially in the case of a condominium in a building that is only used for residential purposes, an energy performance certificate must be issued for the entire building.

Selling and re-letting without complete, correct or permissible evidence can result in fines of up to 15,000 euros. In most federal states, the lower building supervisory authority is responsible for carrying out the administrative offense proceedings and imposing fines .

For publicly used buildings, the EnEV stipulates an obligation to issue and display energy certificates. This applies to buildings with more than 500 m² of floor space (after July 8, 2015 more than 250 square meters of floor space), in which authorities and other facilities provide public services for a large number of people and which are therefore frequently visited by these people . The energy certificates are to be displayed in a place that is clearly visible to the public.

Suggestions for improving the energy efficiency of the building (inexpensive modernization proposals for existing buildings) must be attached to the energy pass, provided that inexpensive modernization measures are possible.

In principle, energy certificates can be issued for existing buildings either on the basis of the calculated energy requirement or the measured energy consumption . The following different rules apply:

  • For residential buildings with a maximum of four apartments for which the building application was submitted before November 1, 1977, energy performance certificates have to be issued since October 1, 2008 on the basis of energy requirements . Exceptions apply to buildings that already met the requirements of the Thermal Insulation Ordinance 1977 when they were completed or that were subsequently upgraded to this status.
  • For non-residential buildings there is a choice between energy demand or consumption as the basis of the energy certificate.

In a transition period until October 1, 2008, all building owners had the option of having an inexpensive, consumption- based energy certificate issued.

Energy requirements as the basis

Energy certificates for new buildings or changes to buildings and for old existing buildings (building application before November 1, 1977), which do not comply with the thermal insulation ordinance of November 1, 1977, must be drawn up on the basis of the energy requirement. The essential results of the calculations required in accordance with § 3 and § 4 EnEV must be stated, provided this is provided for in the samples in Annex 6 to 8. Further information required in the samples must also be provided, unless they are marked as voluntary.

If energy certificates are issued for existing buildings on the basis of the energy requirement, the same data must be provided for public-law evidence according to LBO (for the construction and modification of buildings, i.e. if a building permit process is required) as for a new building. In the case of the energy certificate for submission in the event of a change of owner or tenant, there is no evidence under public law, i. H. the comparison of values ​​permitted according to the Energy Saving Ordinance with the calculated values. Here, the ordinance allows the owner to record the required building data, which he then makes available to the exhibitor (for example in a questionnaire or a questionnaire). The data must then be checked for plausibility by the exhibitor . This regulation is intended to help limit costs and simplify the issuing of requirement cards and avoid costly on-site visits.

Energy consumption as a basis

For existing buildings that already comply with the Thermal Insulation Ordinance of November 1, 1977, energy certificates can also be issued on the basis of the measured energy consumption. For this purpose, the weather-adjusted energy consumption must be specified in the samples in Annexes 6, 7 or 9 of the EnEV.

  • in residential buildings for heating and central hot water preparation in kilowatt hours per year and square meter of building area ; To simplify the determination of the usable building area, the living space may be multiplied by 1.2, for buildings with up to two residential units and a heated cellar by 1.35;
  • in non-residential buildings for heating, hot water, cooling, ventilation and built-in lighting in kilowatt hours per year and square meter of net floor area.

To determine the energy consumption value , consumption data from heating bills or other suitable sources (e.g. bills from the energy supplier, or the telephone information from the energy supplier, e.g. if the bills are lost) must be used as a basis for at least three consecutive billing periods, from which an average value is calculated determine is. This is intended to counteract inaccuracies in information due to user behavior. In addition, longer vacancies should be reasonably taken into account mathematically. In order to enable an energetic evaluation and a comparability with corresponding reference data, the data must be subjected to a weather adjustment . The energy consumption is therefore multiplied by the climate factor of the year and the location.

Authorized issuers

Who is authorized to issue energy certificates for existing buildings is regulated in § 21 EnEV. The EnEV does not regulate the issuing authorization for new buildings , changes or extensions to buildings (previous energy requirement certificate). This remains a matter for the federal states .

The following are entitled to issue energy certificates for existing buildings:

  • University graduates in the fields of architecture , structural engineering , civil engineering , technical building equipment , physics , building physics , mechanical engineering , electrical engineering or another technical or scientific subject with a focus on training in one of the areas mentioned.
  • University graduates in the field of interior design
  • Master craftsmen whose main activity includes the areas of building trade, heating construction, installation or chimney sweeping, and craftsmen who are authorized to practice such a craft independently without a master's degree;
  • State-approved or certified technicians in the fields of building construction , civil engineering or building technology , if they meet at least one of the following requirements:
    • a training focus in the field of energy-saving construction or
    • after graduation, at least two years of professional experience in essential construction and plant engineering areas of activity in building construction or
    • Successful training in the field of energy-saving construction that meets the specified requirements or
    • a building submission authorization not limited to certain trades .
  • Persons who, according to the building regulations of the federal states, are entitled to sign structural proofs of thermal insulation or energy savings in the construction of buildings, within the scope of the respective authorization

The issuing authorization for non-residential buildings exists only for the university graduates named in the first point.

In addition, according to § 29 EnEV, people are entitled to issue energy certificates for existing residential buildings that

  • were registered with the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control as persons entitled to apply before April 25, 2007 (Section 29 (4) EnEV), or
  • who on April 25, 2007 had completed vocational training in the building materials trade or in the building materials industry and successfully completed further training as an energy consultant in the building material trade or in the building materials industry or who started training and later successfully completed it;
  • have completed further training as an energy consultant for the trade before April 25, 2007 or started such further training before April 25 and later successfully completed it.

Transitional provisions

All energy passports (e.g. dena energy pass) and energy requirement certificates that were previously created according to uniform rules are also valid after the EnEV comes into force . The period of validity is ten years from the date of issue.

Statements in the document

The statements in the energy certificate expressly do not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the energy costs actually occurring. The reasons for this are that the calculation is based on a standard climate in Germany and a standard use such as uniform heating of the building. The location and user behavior thus influence the actual result. The primary and final energy requirements are shown in the requirement ID, and the (final) energy consumption value in the consumption ID.

Primary energy demand

This value is intended to signal the environmental compatibility of the building's energy use. This can be misleading if environmentally friendly energy sources such as wood are used in unrenovated buildings. Relatively good environmental compatibility goes hand in hand with possibly high costs.

Final energy demand

The final energy requirement results from a theoretical calculation for the building. A low requirement can be achieved through good thermal insulation , windows with thermal protection glazing , efficient system technology and efficient system control and monitoring, for example through building automation or room automation .

Energy consumption value

This value is calculated from real consumption values ​​over the last three years. Therefore, this value in connection with the energy source and the climatic factor of the location (see below) also reflects the energy costs of the entire building for the past period.


  • The area reference size is the building area , not the living space. The result is shown in the parameters primary energy demand , final energy demand and energy consumption value. These terms are not known to a layperson, they differ greatly from one another in the same building and are often not comparable with one another. In addition, the energy is billed according to the calorific value , but only the lower calorific value is taken into account in the calculation for the ID . The information from the ID can therefore not be traced with the help of rental agreements or heating bills. This means that the expected consumption costs cannot be read from the result.
  • A study by the Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research (BBSR) showed that even with identical calculation bases for the same building, the results in the issued energy certificates differ significantly. When comparing 32 consumption cards and 21 requirement cards, there were deviations of up to 26% for consumption cards, for requirement cards up to 108%: "The requirement card, which is actually considered to be of higher quality, has insufficient reliability in practice".
  • The ID cards are not classified with the energy label known from household appliances , but with a tape speedometer , which makes comparability more difficult.
  • Even buildings with an average energy consumption of 150 (kWh / m²) / year seem to achieve “good” results.

Examples of how deviations in consumption certificates can arise

  • Since the hot water energy consumption is not necessarily taken into account in the consumption certificate, deviations of 100% are possible for this alone. It is important to read and evaluate the "small print". The same applies to residential buildings with district heating or to small residential units, where user behavior has a strong influence on the result.
  • The comparison of requirement certificates with consumption certificates often gives more favorable results for the consumption certificate (comparative variables final energy demand and energy consumption value ). This is also due to the fact that the EnEV estimates the heat losses due to leaks in buildings and that standard heating of the entire building is assumed, which does not occur in practice.
  • When determining the energy consumption, the calorific value is used. Since condensing technology is mostly used in modern heating technology , there is an apparent saving (up to -11% with natural gas heating).

Meaningfulness of requirement identification

The requirement ID is recommended again and again, as only this can give precise modernization recommendations for system technology and building insulation based on the calculation method. At the same time, it is known from studies that requirement cards tend to give too poor a rating of buildings with high requirement values. If actual consumption is disregarded when making modernization recommendations (there is no obligation to determine this), unsustainable savings promises and incorrect profitability calculations result. For an appropriate assessment, it is essential to take actual consumption into account.

With the amendment of the Energy Saving Ordinance in 2009, another calculation method according to DIN V 18599 was introduced for the requirement certificate, which in turn leads to different results than the previous requirement certificate.

EnEV 2014

Basis of the changes

The European directive (Directive 2010/31 / EU, see source, appendix) provides for the energy certificate:

  • The implementation into national law had to take place by July 9, 2012. The new law applies to consumers from January 7, 2013.
  • Tenants or buyers must present a copy of the energy performance certificate and receive it when the contract is signed (Section 12 (2) of the Directive).
  • In commercial advertisements, the characteristic value of the overall energy efficiency and the primary energy consumption must be mentioned when renting or selling (§12 (4) of the directive).
  • Consumption or requirement certificate: Both forms are possible.
  • Modernization recommendations: Economic measures to improve the energetic properties of the building and the individual components are to be named in the certificates.
  • Notice obligation: In public buildings with more than 500 m² (from July 8th 2015: 250 m²) an existing energy certificate must be displayed.


The EnEV 2014 has been in force since May 1, 2014 . The following rules apply to the energy certificate:

Registration requirement:

New buildings:

  • The energy requirement certificate is generally mandatory.
  • The owner must ensure that the energy performance certificate is handed over to him upon completion.

Existing building:

  • In the case of existing buildings, an energy consumption certificate or energy requirement certificate only needs to be available when selling or renting. The ID must be on display during the inspection and the information from it must also be given in real estate advertisements.
  • If a building has fewer than five apartments and does not at least meet the requirements of the Thermal Insulation Ordinance of 1977, only an energy demand certificate may be issued.
  • There is no need to issue an energy certificate for monuments.

Special cases:

  • For every building with more than 500 square meters (from July 8, 2015: 250 square meters) official use and heavy public traffic, an energy certificate must be displayed visibly. In the case of other buildings with high levels of public traffic on a floor space of more than 500 square meters, the energy performance certificate must be displayed as soon as it has been issued.

Austria: Energy pass submission law

Basic data
Title: Energy pass template law
Long title: Federal law on the obligation to present an energy pass when selling and adding buildings and objects to use
Abbreviation: EAVG
Type: Federal law
Scope: Republic of Austria
Legal matter: Building law
Reference: BGBl. I No. 27/2012
Last change: December 1, 2012
Please note the note on the applicable legal version !

For Austria, the National Council passed the federal law in May 2006 on the obligation to present an energy pass when selling or adding buildings and objects to use (Energy Passes Submission Act - EAVG) . The state laws regulate the regulations for new buildings, extensions and extensive renovations as well as all rules on calculation, content, form and exhibitor authorization. As of January 1, 2008 for new buildings and January 1, 2009 for old buildings, the energy performance certificate will become a mandatory document in the entire Alpine republic; it has been in existence in the federal state of Upper Austria since 1999; more than 100,000 energy certificates have already been issued there.

Due to the federal legal situation in Austria - construction and energy laws are subject to state legislation - there will be no uniform laws within Austria according to the federal constitution. However, eight federal states ( Vienna , Burgenland , Lower Austria , Upper Austria , Styria , Vorarlberg , Tyrol and Carinthia ) agreed on largely uniform calculation standards. Salzburg will comply with this from 04/2011 with the new version of the Building Technology Ordinance on Energy and is now also largely harmonizing with the other federal states (according to OIB guidelines). Only the layout of the energy pass is different in Salzburg than in the rest of Austria.

The energy certificate is regulated in the standard ÖNORM H 5055 - energy certificate for buildings

The respective state legislature regulates the issuer authorization for the energy pass in Austria.

See also: Energy standard categories A ++ to G according to the energy certificate.

In Austria, the following standards are required for the generation of energy certificates:

  • ÖNORM B 8110-2 Thermal insulation in building construction - Part 2: Water vapor diffusion, convection and condensation protection.
  • ÖNORM B 8110-3 Thermal insulation in building construction - Part 3: Determination of the operative temperature in summer (avoidance of overheating in summer).
  • ÖNORM B 8110-5 Thermal insulation in building construction - Part 5: Climate model and usage profiles .
  • ÖNORM B 8110-6-1 Thermal insulation in building construction - Part 6-1: Fundamentals and verification procedures - Heating demand and cooling demand.
  • ÖNORM H 5055 Overall energy efficiency of buildings - documents accompanying the energy certificate.
  • ÖNORM H 5056 Total energy efficiency of buildings - Part 1: Heating technology energy requirements.
  • ÖNORM H 5057 Overall energy efficiency of buildings - Part 1: Air conditioning energy requirements for residential and non-residential buildings.
  • ÖNORM H 5058 Overall energy efficiency of buildings - Part 1: Cooling technology energy requirements.
  • ÖNORM H 5059 Overall energy efficiency of buildings - Part 1: Lighting energy requirement (National supplement to ÖNORM EN 15193) - Quick method for the calculation.

Switzerland: Building Energy Performance Certificate of the Cantons (GEAK)

According to the Federal Constitution, the cantons are primarily responsible for limiting energy consumption in buildings (Art. 89 Para. 4 BV ). They are therefore responsible for much more than just execution. Rather, they are responsible for the substantive legislation regarding energy consumption in buildings. Article 9 of the Swiss Energy Act (EnG) also currently assigns the cantons the power to legislate to create favorable framework conditions for the economical and rational use of energy in buildings.

From August 2009 the building energy certificate of the cantons (GEAK) will be available. There is currently no obligation for building owners to order a building energy performance certificate. The official building energy performance certificate (4 pages) can only be issued by certified experts. The software for the simplified version of the building energy performance certificate will be available online for everyone (e.g. homeowners) from August 2009. The printout contains only 2 pages and is clearly marked as "GEAK® light". It is to be understood as a self-declaration. At the beginning, the federal government will subsidize the building energy certificates.

The political discussion continues and the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication presented the draft for a revision of the Energy Act (EnG) on October 22, 2008 and initiated the consultation process. On 13 March 2009, the report was presented on the outcome of the consultation and on 24 June 2009, the Federal Council for submission to Parliament a message of amending the Energy Act adopted which provides for the introduction of a uniform, national and mandatory building energy performance certificate.

Luxembourg: energy pass

In Luxembourg, the energy pass is called the energy pass. The issue, the requirements and the other framework conditions of the energy pass are regulated in the grand-ducal ordinance on the energy efficiency of residential buildings of November 30, 2007. The regulation was modified on August 31, 2010 by the Grand-Ducal regulation on the energy efficiency of non-residential buildings.

The Luxembourg regulation defines the two types of buildings as follows:

  • Residential buildings: Buildings where at least 90% of the energy reference area is intended for residential purposes
  • Non-residential buildings: Buildings where less than 90% of the energy reference area is intended for residential purposes

Currently only residential buildings are subject to the obligation to issue the energy pass. The passport for residential buildings is mandatory for new buildings, extensions, modifications of the thermal building envelope and substantial transformations, as well as when changing owners and tenants.

From January 1, 2011, the energy pass will also be a basic requirement for obtaining a building permit for new buildings, extensions and modifications to non-residential buildings. As of June 1, 2011, the energy pass must also be issued in the event of a change of owner or tenant and substantial transformations of existing non-residential buildings.

Special agricultural buildings, non-residential buildings with large permanent openings to the outside, provisional buildings with a useful life of less than 2 years, places of worship and facilities used for religious purposes as well as independent buildings with less than 50 m² of energy reference area are excluded from the energy passport requirement.

The energy pass is a five-page document that evaluates the energetic state of a building. The energy pass classifies the building into three classes for overall energy efficiency, thermal insulation and environmental impact. The classes are divided from A (low energy requirement) to I (high energy requirement).

The energy pass for all residential buildings and for newly constructed non-residential buildings is created on the basis of a calculated energy requirement (demand-oriented). In all other cases in non-residential construction, the energy pass is created on the basis of measured consumption values. The energy pass for non-residential buildings may differ. a. from the one for residential buildings through an extended consideration of the complete building technology such as lighting, domestic hot water preparation, ventilation, heating, air conditioning, air humidifiers and dehumidifiers. In the case of mixed-use buildings, it may happen that two energy passes have to be created, a non-residential building pass and an energy pass for the area intended for residential purposes.

Only members of the Luxembourg Association of Architects and Consulting Engineers, as well as experts approved by the Luxembourg Ministry of Economic Affairs, are allowed to draw up the energy pass.

The energy pass is valid for 10 years.

Energy certificate as a planning tool

In addition to the various legal obligations to present an energy certificate, the energy certificate serves in particular as a planning tool. In the case of new buildings and renovations, the energy certificate is specifically used to optimize the respective requirements. By adapting the individual components, construction costs can be reduced, energy costs optimized and subsidies optimally exploited.


There are several software providers who sell energy performance certification software. In Germany there are around 20 providers, in Austria there are six recognized energy certificate computer programs and a few smaller providers. However, not all manufacturers support the creation of all ID card derivatives: according to energy requirements, according to energy consumption, for residential buildings according to DIN 4108 and DIN 4701-10 and -12 and for non-residential buildings according to DIN V 18599.

See also

Laws, norms and standards

European directives:

To the German energy pass:

To the Austrian energy certificate:

To the Swiss energy pass:



Web links

Wiktionary: Energy pass  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Energy Performance Certificates  - collection of images, videos and audio files




Individual evidence

  1. dena: Contact points for administrative offenses
  2. ↑ Climate factors (KF) for energy consumption certificates. Website of the German Weather Service. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  3. BMVBS-Online-Publication, No. 01/2011 ( Memento of the original from August 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. DENA press release
  5. Optimus Project ( Memento of the original from March 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.1 MB) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  6. The proforma energy certificate. In: , accessed on December 7, 2012.
  7. ^ Website of the Conference of Cantonal Energy Directors.
  8. ^ Website building energy certificate of the cantons (GEAK): Frequently asked questions. ( Memento of the original from September 4, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. Energy pass for residential buildings in Luxembourg. In: , June 14, 2010
  10. Energy pass for non-residential buildings in Luxembourg. In: , October 11, 2010