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Properties of human protein
Mass / length primary structure 6/14/17/34/53/71 amino acids
Secondary to quaternary structure Protein sulfate
Precursor (101 aa; 11.4 kDa)
Gene names GUEST  ; GAS
External IDs
Parent taxon Higher mammals
human mouse
Entrez 2520 14459
Ensemble ENSG00000184502 ENSMUSG00000017165
UniProt P01350 Q6GSF5
Refseq (mRNA) NM_000805 NM_010257
Refseq (protein) NP_000796 NP_034387
Gene locus Chr 17: 37.12 - 37.13 Mb Chr 11: 100.15 - 100.15 Mb
PubMed search 2520 14459

Gastrin or polypeptide 101 (PP 101) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal tract and exerts - in addition to other effects such. B. the increase in cardiac sphincter tone - the strongest stimulus for the production of gastric acid .

Structurally, it is closely related to cholecystokinin . The gastrin is formed in the G cells in the antrum pyloricum of the stomach and in the duodenum and transported from there via blood vessels to its sites of action. Increased gastrin production by a hormone-producing tumor , a so-called gastrinoma , can rarely occur.

The synthesis was achieved in the 1960s by George Wallace Kenner .

to form

Big gastrin
Gastrin I
Mini gastrin

The three forms of gastrin differ in the length of their peptide chain:

Gastrin form Length of the peptide chain
Big gastrin 34 amino acids
Gastrin I and II 17 amino acids
also gastrin (5-17)
14 amino acids

Control of the delivery

The secretion (discharge) of gastrin is stimulated by:

The secretion is inhibited by:


Gastrin mainly affects the stomach. It stimulates:

Gastrin also has an effect on the pancreas, where it stimulates the release of insulin (blood sugar lowering agent ), glucagon (blood sugar increasing agent ) and somatostatin (gastrin and pepsin inhibitor).

Decoupled effect

When Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is multiple neuroendocrine tumors (NET) , which then is most common in the pancreas , the small intestine or the liver find autonomously produce gastrin. The normally closed control loop is broken by the permanent flooding of the gastrin in the blood.

In the stomach, the parietal cells react to the unphysiologically increased gastrin level with hyperplasia and produce more hydrochloric acid . This in turn can lead to further damage to the lining of the stomach and small intestine .

Individual evidence

  1. UniProt P01350 .
  2. SE Miederer et al .: Gastrin release by methylxanthine , Klin. Wschr. 51 (1973) 42.
  3. E Ipp, RE Dobbs, V Harris, A Arimura, W Vale, RH Unger: The effects of gastrin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, secretin, and the octapeptide of cholecystokinin upon immunoreactive somatostatin release by the perfused canine pancreas. . In: Journal of Clinical Investigation . 60, No. 5, November 1977, pp. 1216-1219. PMC 372476 (free full text).