Iberian dragon head
|Iberian dragon head|
Iberian scorpionfish ( Lallemantia iberica )
|( M.Bieb. ) Fish. & CAMey.|
The Iberian dragon head ( Lallemantia iberica ), also Ölziest called, is a plant of the genus Lallemantia in the family of the mint (Lamiaceae). Its distribution area extends over parts of Asia Minor and Transcaucasia , in Eastern Europe it was regionally naturalized as an oil plant and is used here as a raw material for the production of Lallemantia oil . The Iberian dragon head became known in Western Europe in 1873 through the Vienna World Exhibition .
The Iberian scorpionfish is an annual herbaceous plant with heights of 40 to 60 centimeters in cultivation , but it can also get taller, in the wild it does not get that high. The roots reach very deep into the ground as an adaptation to dry locations . It has a square, sparsely branched and partly reddish stem .
The cross-objectively arranged leaves are divided into a petiole and a leaf blade. The petiole is up to 2.5 inches long. The simple and often boat-shaped leaf blades are egg-shaped to linear-lanceolate with a length of up to 6 centimeters and a width of up to 2 centimeters. The leaf veins are pronounced. The leaf edge of the lower leaves is serrated, the upper leaves are completely serrated. There are per Laubblatt two short pedunculated, with a length of up to 9 millimeters and a width of relatively small to 5 millimeters, upside-breiteiförmige stipules present. The stipules have six to ten awn-like teeth on the edge, which have narrow tips ( awns ) up to 5 millimeters long , with the awning tips being slightly shorter in the middle. The leaves and stipules are larger in the lower area of the stem and then become smaller and smaller towards the top.
The flowers are arranged in pseudo-whorls in spike-like inflorescences . The hermaphrodite flowers are zygomorphic and five-fold with a double flower envelope . The five sepals are fused to form a calyx tube up to 9 millimeters long. The ribbed and finely hairy calyx ends in calyx tips five to 3 millimeters long. The flower crowns are white, lavender-white or blue-violet; also with a white lower lip. The white-flowered form produces larger seeds and is therefore preferred. The corolla tube is up to 12 millimeters long. The upper lip of the crown is two-lobed, the lower lip is three-lobed with a larger, sweeping central corolla lobe. There are four stamens .
The flowering time is from July to August, the seeds ripen from August to September.
The Klaus fruits disintegrate into four triangular, keeled on the abdomen and flat arched, narrow, egg-shaped and flattened Klausen on the back . The matt dark to black-brown seeds have a distinct, white hilum , they are 3.5 to 5.5 millimeters long and about 1.2 to 2 millimeters wide and 1 to 1.5 millimeters thick. The thousand grain mass is 4 to 5 grams.
The basic chromosome number is x = 7; there is diploidy with a chromosome number of 2n = 14.
The seeds contain up to 38% oil, the Lallemantia oil consists of around 50-65% triglycerides with α-linolenic acid as a fatty acid component. Due to the very high content of unsaturated fatty acids of over 90% in the esters of the triglycerides, the oil is one of the fastest drying vegetable oils.
The flowers are mainly fertilized by bees and bumblebees.
The first publication took place under the name ( Basionym ) Dracocephalum ibericum by M.Bieb. in Fl.taur -caucus. 2, 1808, p. 64. The accepted name Lallemantia iberica (M.Bieb.) Fisch. & CAMey. was in index sem. hoard. petrop. 6, 1840, p. 53. other synonyms are Dracocephalum aristatum Bertol. and Lallemantia sulphurea K. Koch .
The natural range of the Iberian scorpionfish lies in the temperate to subtropical regions of Asia Minor to Central Asia . Accordingly, Lallemantia iberica can be found primarily in Iran , Iraq , Jordan , Syria , Israel , Lebanon and Turkey as well as Armenia , Azerbaijan , Turkmenistan and parts of the Caucasus region of Russia. In Turkey it is found at altitudes of up to 2150 meters.
The Iberian scorpionfish is a warmth-loving species without major demands on the climate . It grows mainly in sunny locations and is drought tolerant. On the other hand, it is sensitive to high precipitation and cold. It needs calcareous soils and grows particularly well in weathered locations , while clayey soils are not suitable. Waterlogging and weakly acidic soils are also not suitable locations.
The Iberian dragon head is cultivated as an oil plant. It grows in accordance with its ecological requirements, especially on dry to moderately moist limestone soils. Within a crop rotation it does not make any demands on previous crops, although cereals are particularly suitable for suppressing root competitors and it is suitable for any subsequent crop .
The spring sowing takes place in mid-April, with the minimum temperature for germination being around 2 to 3 ° C. The germination period is 2 to 3 weeks, the vegetation period is relatively short at 90 to 120 days. Late sowing can reduce the yield considerably; it has thus been shown that sowing in mid-May causes less than 60% of the seed yield and only about 80% of the oil yield.
The harvest takes place with the combine harvester shortly before the seeds are fully ripe in order to avoid losses due to the grains falling out of the fruit. The seed yield is around 20 quintals (also quintals) per hectare.
With a grain yield of 15 dt / hectare, the nutrient requirement of the Iberian scorpionfish is low with around 70 kg nitrogen per hectare. For the other main nutrients phosphorus , potassium and magnesium, moderate soil contents are sufficient (medium supply level).
Due to its rapid growth, the Iberian scorpionfish is very competitive against " weeds ", so removal only makes sense in the case of root competitors. Herbicides are not approved for growing the Iberian scorpionfish. Heavy rainfall and cold can lead to stem rot from botrytis infestation, although seeds from more northern areas are likely to be largely resistant to this .
So far, the Iberian scorpionfish has been cultivated as an oil plant mainly in the CIS regions .
The main use of the Iberian scorpion fish is for the production of oil as an alternative to linseed oil , especially linoleic oil for the chemical industry. It is used in the manufacture of lacquers and oil paints, wood preservatives, furniture polish and in the manufacture of linoleum .
The essential oil contains Germacrene- D (33.7%), 3-Carene (19.0%), Iso- Caryophyllene (γ-Caryophyllene) (12.8%), Sabinene (11.1%), Alpha -Terpine acetate (6.5%) and limonene (4.4%). The detection is carried out by coupling gas chromatography with mass spectrometry .
Young plants can be used as food and as medicinal plants . Crop residues are processed into animal feed .
- Guideline for the efficient and environmentally friendly production of Iberian dragon head. (PDF; 167 kB) Thuringian State Agency for Agriculture, 2005, accessed on May 1, 2017 .
- Armin Vetter, Günter Wurl, Torsten Graf: Iberian dragon head - a new linolenic acid supplier for the chemical industry? (PDF) Thuringian State Office for Agriculture, accessed on May 1, 2017 .
- A. Biertümpfel, T. Graf: Iberian dragon head - an interesting oil plant for Thuringia. (PDF; 594 kB), Thuringian State Agency for Agriculture.
- Iberian dragon head cultivation telegram, Thuringian State Research Center for Agriculture, 2008 (PDF; 275 kB).
- ↑ Gustav Hefter: Technology of fats and oils. Second volume, Springer, 1908, ISBN 978-3-662-01825-5 (reprint), p. 139.
- ↑ Leo Ubbelohde , F. Goldschmidt: Handbook of chemistry and technology of oils and fats. Volume II, Hirzel, 1920, p. 342, archive.org .
- ^ V. Ion, A. Gh. Bǎșa et al .: Results Regarding Biological Characteristics of the Species Lallemantia Iberica in the Specific Conditions from South Romania. In: Scientific Papers, UASVM Bucharest, Series A, Volume LIV, 2011, pp. 275–280, online (PDF; 200 kB) at researchgate.net, accessed on December 3, 2017.
- ↑ a b c Species portrait in the information system Renewable Raw Materials ( Memento from December 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ).
- ↑ a b Monika Vala: Selected vegetable fats and oils of pharmaceutical relevance. Diploma thesis, University of Vienna, 2012, pp. 84–86, online at othes.univie.ac.at (PDF; 1 MB), accessed on April 29, 2017.
- ↑ Comptes rendus (Doklady) de l'Académie des sciences de l'URSS. Volume 24, 1939, p. 192 f.
- ↑ a b c Lallemantia iberica at Plants For A Future
- ↑ Taner Özcan, Elif Gezer, Esra Martin, Tuncay Dirmenci, Fahim Altınordu: Karyotype Analyzes on the Genus Lallemantia Fisch. & CAMey. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. In: Cytologia. Volume 79, Issue 4, 2014, pp. 553-559. on-line. doi: 10.1508 / cytologia.79.553
- ^ Lallemantia iberica in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
- ↑ Davood Nori-Shargh, SM Kiaei, F. Deyhimi, V. Mozaffarian, H. Yahyaei: The volatile constituents analysis of Lallemantia iberica (MB) Fischer & Meyer from Iran. In: Natural Product Research. Volume 23, Issue 6, 2009, pp. 546-548. PMID 19384731 , doi: 10.1080 / 14786410601132394 .