Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart

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Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart

Jakob Friedrich Ehrhart (born November 4, 1742 in Holderbank AG , Switzerland ; † June 26, 1795 in Hanover ) was a Swiss pharmacist and botanist in Germany. Its official botanical author's abbreviation is “ Ehrh. ".

Live and act

His parents were his father Johannes Ehrhart, a pastor from Bern and his wife Magdalena, née Wild.

From his youth he devoted himself to the study of natural sciences, began in 1765, after the death of his father, a pharmacist apprenticeship in Nuremberg and then worked as a pharmacist's assistant in Erlangen, Hanover and Stockholm, where he heard from Peter Jonas Bergius (1730–1790) . From 1774 to 1776 Ehrhart was a student of the two Linnés in Uppsala .

From 1778 he organized the collections of the pharmacist Johann Gerhard Reinhard Andreae in Hanover, where he published the first decades of his dried plants and the Supplementum Plantarum of the younger Linnaeus. In 1780 he became a " Royal British and Electoral Brunswick-Lüneburg Botanist" and worked on a "Hanoverian plant history" on behalf of the government in Hanover . For this purpose, he traveled to the Electorate and neighboring areas on behalf of the government from 1780 to 1783 and noted his floristic observations.

Memorial plaque on the library pavilion in front of the Berggarten

On September 15, 1779 he discovered a small swamp in Limmerholz , the spring water of which smelled strongly sulphurous. From this sulfur spring , the Limmerbrunnen , a therapeutic bath for gout and rheumatism patients quickly developed. On November 22nd, 1779 he wrote an article in the “Hannoversche Magazin”: “Last summer, on my Sunday botanical excursions on the way from Linden to Davenstedt, I found some plants that I had previously only found near salt springs and on the lake beach, or in places that weren't far away from these or at least once covered with salt water, in short, only there, so the table salt was found ... ”. This article was later discovered by Georg Egestorff , who founded the Egestorffshall salt works there in 1831.

He then became head of the Herrenhausen Gardens in Herrenhausen near Hanover.

In addition to the saline sources in Badenstedt analyzed Ehrhart also, according to tradition, by reference of the physician Johann Georg Zimmermann , the then mayor Ernst Anton saint named Heiliger Brunnen in the Eilenriede .

Ehrhart is of particular historical importance because the taxon of the subspecies goes back to him , which he first used in 1780 and first defined in 1784. He described almost 300 plant taxa and created an extensive herbarium of around 3,300 specimens , which he mainly collected in Germany , Switzerland , Denmark , the Netherlands and the area around Uppsala. His herbarium is now in the herbarium of the Moscow State University .

Taxonomic honor

The genus Ehrharta Thunb. from the sweet grass family (Poaceae) has been named after him.


  • Supplementum systematis vegetabilium, generum et specierum plantarum . 1781.
  • Directory of the trees and shrubs that are on the Königl. Plantation in Herrenhausen near Hanover . 1787.
  • Directory of the glass and greenhouse plants, which are on the Königl. Berggarten zu Herrenhausen near Hanover . 1791.
  • Contributions to natural history, and the sciences related to it, especially botany, chemistry, house and agriculture, knowledge of medicines and the art of pharmacy . 7 volumes, 1787 to 1792 doi: 10.5962 / bhl.title.44806 .
  • Autobiography in Usteri's Annals of Botany


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Kurt Preywisch: Did botanical research in the Höxter district begin 200 years ago? . In: Egge-Weser series. Volume 6, Issue 1. Egge-Weser Natural History Association, Höxter 1989. ISSN  1860-7640 , pp. 33–51.
  2. Lebensraum-linden.de ( Memento of the original from July 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / Lebensraum-linden.de
  3. neuepresse.de
  4. hannover-badenstedt.de ( Memento of the original from October 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hannover-badenstedt.de
  5. Dirk Böttcher: EHRHART, Jacob Friedrich (see literature)
  6. ^ Rainer Ertel , Ernst-Friedrich Roesener: Medicinal wells. In: Hannoversches Brunnenbuch. Fountains and fountains in Hanover. Exemplary and documentary. Fackelträger-Verlag, Hanover 1988, ISBN 3-7716-1497-X , p. 58ff.
  7. ^ Gerd Weiß: Kleefeld. In: Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany , architectural monuments in Lower Saxony, city of Hanover. Part 2, Volume 10.2, ed. by Hans-Herbert Möller, ISBN 3-528-06208-8 , p. 78f .; as well as Kleefeld in the addendum directory of architectural monuments acc. § 4 (NDSchG) (except for architectural monuments of the archaeological monument preservation), status: July 1, 1985, City of Hanover, Lower Saxony State Administration Office - Institute for Monument Preservation , p. 17ff.
  8. ^ AO Chater, RK Brummitt , Friedrich Ehrhart: Subspecies in the Works of Friedrich Ehrhart. In: Taxon Volume 15, 1966, p. 3, pp. 95-106.
  9. ^ Sergey A. Balandin: Herbarium JF Ehrhart (1742–1795). Microfiche edition 1999, ISBN 90-04-19835-0 .
  10. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names . Extended Edition. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Free University Berlin Berlin 2018. [1]