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The Oberlandeshauptmann was the governor of the Bohemian king in Silesia , which was a sub-country of the Crown of Bohemia from 1335 to 1742 . He was appointed by the king and was in charge of the "Oberlandeshauptmannschaft", which was also known as the "Oberamt". The governors of the Silesian duchies and hereditary principalities as well as the estates of Silesia were subordinate to the Oberlandeshauptmann . He exercised voluntary jurisdiction over the princes and was responsible, among other things, for collecting tax money.


The first governor of Silesia was the Breslau bishop Konrad von Oels . He was appointed by King Sigismund on April 16, 1422 . It was not until King Matthias Corvinus (1469–1490), whose rulership included the Bohemian neighboring countries Moravia , Silesia and Lusatia , that an effective state administration began and the office of governor became a permanent institution. Since he could not win a Silesian prince for this office, Corvinus appointed the Spiš Count Stephan Zápolya as Oberlandeshauptmann in December 1474 , who was also the provincial governor of the Hereditary Duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer . In the great state privilege of 1498, King Vladislav II confirmed, among other things, the institution of governor. At the same time he determined that in future the upper office should always be transferred to a Silesian prince.

After Bohemia passed to the House of Habsburg in 1526, the position of governor initially remained unchanged. After the death of the Oberlandeshauptmann Karl I. von Münsterberg und Oels in 1536 a prince-bishop, Jakob von Salza , was appointed again. With this connection of offices, among other things, the spread of Protestantism should be prevented. At the same time, King Ferdinand I forbade the prince-bishop to convene a prince's day of his own accord without royal instructions . After the death of Bishop Johann VI. von Sitsch 1608 ordered Rudolf II with a letter of majesty dated August 20, 1609 that the regional governor should be entrusted to a secular, Protestant Silesian prince and that the bishop of Breslau would be excluded from this office in the future. Rudolf's successor Matthias confirmed these privileges on October 9, 1611 and also agreed to the establishment of a German law firm for Silesia and Lusatia, which had its seat in Prague. With the conversion of Duke Adam Wenzel from Teschen , the Oberamt came back into Catholic hands in 1617 and, after his early death, again into Protestant hands. In 1624 the governor was forbidden to convene princely days without the express permission of the emperor.

After the resignation of Duke Georg Rudolf in 1629, the office lost its previous status as the emperor converted it into a supervisory and administrative authority that was dependent on him. As a result, the Oberlandeshauptmannschaft became a purely imperial authority, in which the chief captain had the honorary chairmanship, but had little influence. The honorary chairmanship, without influence, was now taken over by Duke Heinrich Wenzel von Oels and Bernstadt , against the promise of free religious practice for his country . After another decree of King Ferdinand III. In 1639 the participation of the estates was practically eliminated, the loyal Oberlandeshauptmann Karl Eusebius of Liechtenstein resigned from his office in protest. In 1719 the office was withdrawn from Prince-Bishop Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg and not re-occupied with a member of the Prince's Curia. Charles VI It transferred it on an interim basis to the Schweidnitz-Jauer provincial governor Johann Anton Graf von Schaffgotsch , who was in charge of the business as "Oberamtsdirektor". With the annexation of Silesia by Prussia in 1741, the office of governor ended.

List of Oberlandeshauptmanns

  • 1422-14 ?? Konrad von Oels , Bishop of Breslau and Prince of Neisse
  • 1474–1479 Stephan Zápolya , Count of Spiš
  • 1480–1481 Johann Filipec , Bishop of Großwardein
  • 1488/89 Friedrich I , Duke of Liegnitz
  • 1490–1497 Johann IV. Roth , Prince-Bishop
  • 1497–1504 Kassimir II , Duke of Teschen , was deposed because he was unable to fight the robbery.
  • 1504–1507 Sigismund I of Poland , in his capacity as Duke of Glogau , which was given to him by his brother, the Bohemian King Vadislav II . During his tenure on February 3, 1504, the so-called "Kolowratsche Treaty" was concluded, which the Bohemian Chancellor Albrecht von Kolowrat brought about. With the treaty it was agreed that not only Silesians but also members of the other countries of the Crown of Bohemia will become bishops and canons in Wroclaw and may also receive fiefs.
  • 1507–1509 Johannes V. Thurzo , Prince-Bishop; Appointment in disregard of the Kolowratschen Treaty
  • 1509–1517 again Casimir II of Teschen; In addition, he received the provincial governance in the Hereditary Principality of Troppau for life and the usufruct of the Hereditary Principality of Glogau
    • 1516–1526 Friedrich II. , Duke of Liegnitz, highest state official for Lower Silesia
  • 1527–1536 Charles I , Duke of Münsterberg and Oels ; previously governor of Upper Lusatia, governor of Bohemia and governor of Glogau until 1533. Because of the Turkish wars in 1532, the estates extended their powers for national readiness.
  • 1536–1539 Jakob von Salza , Prince-Bishop
  • 1539–1562 Balthasar von Promnitz , Prince-Bishop
  • 1562–1574 Kaspar von Logau , Prince-Bishop
  • 1574–1585 Martin von Gerstmann , Prince-Bishop; also set up Protestant councilors in the administration of the Oberamt.
  • 1586–1596 Andreas von Jerin , Prince-Bishop
    • 1597-1599 vacancy
  • 1599–1600 Paul Albert , Prince-Bishop; died before the episcopal ordination. Since he was not a Silesian, his appointment as governor violated the Kolowratschen Treaty of 1504.
  • 1600–1608 John VI. von Sitsch , Prince-Bishop; In the autumn of 1607, on the instructions of the sovereign, excluded the Jägerndorfer Duke Johann Georg von Brandenburg from the Princely Days and the Estates assemblies.
  • 1608–1617 Charles II (Münsterberg-Oels) , Duke of Münsterberg and Oels
  • 1617 Adam Wenzel , Duke of Teschen; died in the year of appointment.
  • 1617–1620 Johann Christian , Duke of Liegnitz and Brieg ; In 1618, after the lintel in Prague, he went to Vienna to see the emperor in order to persuade him to moderate and to negotiate the disputes between Silesia and Bohemia and Moravia at court. A delegation commissioned by him went to Prague to the rebels , to whom it was to inform that in Silesia they would stand by them on the religious question but also stand by the emperor.
  • 1621–1629 Georg Rudolf , Duke of Liegnitz
  • 1629–1639 Heinrich Wenzel , Duke of Oels and Bernstadt ; When in 1632 the Protestant Silesian princes sought rapprochement with the Swedish-Saxon conquerors, Heinrich Wenzel, who wanted to remain loyal to the emperor, refused to convene a prince's convention and temporarily left the country.
  • 1639–1641 Karl Eusebius , Prince of Liechtenstein and Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf
  • 1641–1664 George III. , Duke of Brzeg
  • 1664–1671 Sebastian von Rostock , Prince-Bishop. With his appointment the Counter Reformation should be accelerated and the presence of the governor in Wroclaw guaranteed.
    • 1671-1675 vacancy
  • 1675–1682 Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt , Prince-Bishop; did not receive the Oberamt until 1675 with the condition to move to Silesia.
  • 1682–1684 Johann Caspar von Ampringen , Duke of Freudenthal and Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
  • 1685–1719 Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg , Prince-Bishop; was relieved of the business of the upper office in 1719 because of his frequent absences.
  • 1719–1741 Johann (Hans) Anton Graf von Schaffgotsch, Governor of the Hereditary Duchy of Schweidnitz-Jauer; Headed the Oberamt until the annexation of Silesia by Prussia on an interim basis as "Oberamtsdirektor".
after the transition to Prussia in 1742

See also

Individual evidence

  1. p. 160 (PDF; 1.9 MB)