Peter Ugelheimer even Ugelnheimer (* ca. 1442 / 1446 in Frankfurt am Main , † before 10. January 1488 in Milan ) was a Venetian- German merchant, bookseller and bibliophile. He is also known as the host of the German pilgrimage group around Bernhard von Breydenbach , Erhard Reuwich and Count Johann zu Solms on the way to Palestine.
The Ugel (n) heimer family originally comes from the Palatinate, the name is derived from the spelling of Iggelheim at the time. Peter's grandfather Hans came to Frankfurt from Worms. His son Peter Ugelnheimer the Elder, who died in 1463. Ä., The father Peters d. J., has certainly already traded with Venice for the Blum company; his son of the same name is likely to have followed him in it from a young age. Alexander Dietz knew another source according to which the younger Peter became a partner in the Blum Society in 1468. As early as 1469 he acquired a copy of the Pliny edition printed by Johannes von Speyer in Venice and had it painted in the northern Italian Renaissance style. Perhaps he was a factor for society, at least a representative of the Blum Society.
By 1476/77 at the latest, he started his own business in Venice as a partner of the outstanding French printer Nicolas Jenson and the Frankfurt merchant Johann Rauchfass (d. 1478). He had a deep friendship with Jenson, who must have learned to print in Mainz. In 1480 Peter was instrumental in founding the printing company "Johannes de Colonia, Nicolas Jenson et socii". Before the end of 1480, after Jenson's death and the departure of Johann von Köln , he seems to have taken over responsibility for the company's printing up to around 1483.
At the same time, Ugelheimer built an astonishing trading network for the recently introduced printed book in central and northern Italy. Branches and contract bookshops in Pisa, Perugia, Siena, Florence, Milan, Bergamo and Mantua are known. At the same time, Ugelheimer sold in German-speaking countries through bookkeeping and at the Frankfurt trade fair .
In Venice, after a certain point in time, Ugelheimer no longer lived in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi but with his wife Margarete, nee. Molle, in what appeared to be a stately home in the municipality of San Paternian that also served as a warehouse. The pilgrims around Bernhard von Breydenbach stayed there for 22 days in 1483. Breydenbach later recommended Ugelheimer's house in his travel briefing as the ideal accommodation in Venice. In 1488 his widow is occupied in a house in San Bartolomeo.
In 1484 Ugelheimer largely gave up his book trade empire. Contrary to the older view, he never seems to have planned to leave Venice for good. In the summer of 1486 he announced the postponement of the trade fair to German merchants in Venice for the Frankfurt Council. On December 16, 1487, Ugelheimer drew up the will he received on site in Milan. He wanted to be buried in the newly built Dominican church of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan or perhaps in the associated cloister; his grave has not been preserved.
With the support of the Venetian administration, Peter's widow Margarete collected her husband's outstanding debts in Milan, while she sold the couple's real estate in Frankfurt. In Venice she acted as a long-distance trader and de facto publisher; Among other things, she had Aldus Manutius print the edition of the letters of Catherine of Siena in 1499 .
The family coat of arms is a blue bar with a gold fetter in silver.
- Ugelheimer can be one of the pioneers of trade with printed books apply.
- By financing important printers, he is likely to have made a significant contribution to Venice's long dominant position in the Italian book and publishing industry.
- His collection of illuminated incunabula and manuscripts is one of the most magnificent private libraries of the Renaissance. All of his books are generally printed or written on parchment , which at that time had largely been supplanted by paper and was only used for luxury copies. The covers of his books, which can be divided into three work groups, are among the most innovative and elaborate of the Italian early Renaissance. Apparently, after his death, the Mainz Cathedral Library acquired some of the most valuable volumes.
- Peter's brother Johann is the first demonstrable student at the University of Mainz . According to a certificate of study issued in 1481 (today at the Institute for Urban History in Frankfurt am Main), he enrolled in the founding year of 1477 with Rector Jakob Welder for a two-year (additional) degree.
- Peter Ugelheimer appears in a pilgrimage report falsified by Goethe's brother-in-law Christian Vulpius as the host of the pilgrims in Venice.
- The English newspaper magnate Henry Yates Thompson asked the question whether the two-volume Aristotle print from Ugelheimer's possession, which later came to the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, was "the most beautiful book in the world". However, the Morgan Aristotle was then owned by Yates Thompson himself. The feisty librarian John Pierpont Morgans, Belle da Costa Greene , was less than enthusiastic when Morgan bought the volumes in 1919 for 6,000 pounds. Today the "Morgan Aristotle" is one of the highlights of the library.
- Emilio Motta: Pamfilo Castaldi, Antonio Planella, Pietro Ugleimer ed il vescovo d'Aleria. Nuovi documenti per la Storia della Tipografia in Italia tratti dagli Archivi Milanesi. In: Rivista Storica Italiana 1 (1884), pp. 252-272.
- Bartolomeo Cecchetti : Stampatori, libri stampati nel secolo XV. Il testamento di Nicolò Jenson e di altri tipografi in Venezia. In: Archivio Veneto 33 (1887), pp. 457-467 ( archive.org ).
- Demetrio Marzi: I tipografi tedeschi in Italia durante il secolo XV. In: Otto Hartwig (Hrsg.): Festschrift for the five hundred year birthday of Johann Gutenberg. Leipzig 1900 ( 23rd supplement to the Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen ) ( archive.org ), pp. 407–453.
- Gustav Ludwig: Antonello da Messina and German and Dutch artists in Venice. In: Yearbook of the royal Prussian art collections. Supplement to volume twenty-third (1902), pp. 43-65 ( JSTOR 25167461 ).
- Gustav Ludwig: Contratti fra lo stampador Zuan de Colonia ed i suori socii e inventario di una parte del loro magazzino. In: Miscellanea di storia veneta ser. 2, 8, 1902, pp. 45-88.
- Alexander Dietz : Frankfurt trade history. 4 volumes. Frankfurt a. M. 1910-1925 ( digital copies ).
- Theodor Gottlieb : Venetian bindings of the XV. Century after Persian patterns. In: Kunst und Kunsthandwerk 16 (1913) 3, pp. 153–176 ( digitized version ).
- Konrad Haebler : The German book printers of the XV. Century abroad. Munich 1924.
- Victor Scholderer: Printing at Venice to the end of 1481. In: The Library . Fourth Ser. 5 (1924) 2, pp. 129–152 (reprinted in: ders .: Fifty essays in fifteenth- and sixteenths-century bibliography , edited by Dennis E. Rhodes, Amsterdam 1966, pp. 74–89) doi: 10.1093 / library / s4-V.2.129 .
- Friedrich Uhlhorn : On the history of the Breidenbach pilgrimage. In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 9 (1934), pp. 107–111 ( digi-journals ).
- Tammaro De Marinis: La legatura artistica in Italia nei secoli XV e XVI. 3 volumes. Florence 1960.
- Giuseppe Fumagalli: Lexicon typographicum Italiae. Dictionnaire géographique d'Italie pour servir à l'histoire de l'imprimerie dans ce pays. Erg. Neudr. (First dr. Florence 1905), Florence 1966.
- Giordana Mariani Canova: La miniatura veneta del rinascimento. 1450–1500 (= Profili e saggi di arte veneta 7). Venice 1969.
- Leonardas V. Gerulaitis: Printing and Publishing in Fifteenth-Century Venice. Chicago 1976.
- Marino Zorzi: Stampatori tedeschi a Venezia. In: Banca Cattolica del Veneto (ed.): Venezia e la Germania arte, politica, commercio, due civiltà a confronto. Collaborazione alla ricerca iconografica e commenti ai saggi per immagini per Susanna Biadene. Milan 1986, pp. 115-140.
- Anthony RA Hobson: Humanists and Bookbinders. The Origins and Diffusion of the Humanistic Bookbinding 1459–1559, with a census of historiated plaquette and medallion bindings of the Renaissance. Cambridge 1989.
- Martin Lowry: Nicholas Jenson and the Rise of Venetian Publishing in Renaissance Europe. Oxford 1991 ISBN 0-631-17394-3 .
- Serena Veneziani: Jenson, Nicolas. In: Mario Caravale (ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 62: Iacobiti-Labriola. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 2004.
- Frederike Timm: Bernhard von Breidenbach's Palestine pilgrimage report and Erhard Reuwich's woodcuts: the “Peregrinatio in terram sanctam” (1486) as a propaganda instrument in the cloak of learned pilgrimage. Stuttgart 2006.
- Stefano Carboni (Ed.): Venice and the Islamic World. 828-1797. (Exhibition cat. Paris, Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris, 2006–2007; New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007), engl. Ed., Paris / New York / New Haven 2007.
- Elizabeth Ross: The reception of Islamic culture in the book collection of Peter Ugelheimer. In: Lisa Pon / Craig Kallendorf (eds.): The Books of Venice / Il libro veneziano (= Miscellanea Marciana XX, 2005-2007). New Castle / Venice 2008, pp. 127–151.
- Angela Nuovo: The Book Trade in the Italian Renaissance (= Library of the written world 26; The handpress world 20). Leiden 2013 (Paperback 2016).
- Christian Coppens: Giovanni da Colonia, aka Johann Ewylre / Arwylre / Ahrweiler: the Early Printed Book and Its Investors. In: Alessandro Ledda (Ed.): Incunabula: printing, trading, collecting, cataloging; atti del convegno internazionale, Milano, 10–12 September 2013 = La bibliofilia 116 (2014), pp. 113–120.
- Elizabeth Ross: Picturing experience in the early printed book. Breydenbach's Peregrinatio from Venice to Jerusalem . University Park, Pa. 2014.
- Philippe Braunstein : Les Allemands à Venise (1380–1520) (= Bibliothéque des Écoles francaises d'Athénes et de Rome. Fascicule 372). Rome 2016.
- Michael Matthäus: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 26, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-428-11207-5 , pp. 527-529 ( version ). In:
- Michael Matthäus: Ugelnheimer (also: Ugelheimer), Peter, gen. D. J. In: Frankfurter Personenlexikon (online edition), frankfurter-habenlexikon.de
- Behind the parchment: the world. The Frankfurt merchant Peter Ugelheimer and the art of illumination in the Venice of the Renaissance . Cathedral Museum Frankfurt; edited by Christoph Winterer ; Editor Christoph Winterer, Bettina Schmitt. Hirmer, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-7774-2986-1
- Fletcher, H. George: Masterpiece: The Illuminations of Girolamo da Cremona, in Peter Ugelheimer's Works of Aristotle ... (on the occasion of: Renaissance Venice, Exh. New York, Pierpont Morgan Library 2012), in: Wall Street Journal of June 23, 2012 .
- The Ugelnheimer family in the database "Das Frankfurter Patriziat" (Andreas Hansert)
- To the title page of Ugelheimer's Pliny, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Réserve des livres rares, Rés. Vélins 493-494, Venice: Johann von Speyer, 1469.
- Complete digitization of Ugelheimer's Pliny from 1469.
- Digital copy of the manuscript from Ugelheimer's possession: Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Pal. lat. 697, Nycolaus de Ausmo: Supplementum pisanelle expletum, Venice or Northern Italy 1470. A previous owner was Nicolas Jenson.
- Digital copy of the manuscript from Ugelheimer's possession: Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Pal. lat. 1497, Cicero: Epistulae ad Familiares, Northern Italy approx. 1465-1480.
- Peter Ugelheimer in the CERL thesaurus .
- Literature by and about Peter Ugelheimer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Facebook page "from" Peter Ugelheimer about the Frankfurt special exhibition (see below)
- Website of the Dommuseum Frankfurt , which will host the exhibition Behind the Parchment: the World from 9 March to 10 June 2018 . The Frankfurt merchant Peter Ugelheimer and the art of illumination in Venice of the Renaissance shows.
- List of the Ugelheimer incunabula by Paul Needham
- Richard Froning (arrangement): Frankfurter Chroniken and annalistic records of the Middle Ages (= sources for Frankfurt history 1). Frankfurt a. M. 1884, p. 440 ( archive.org ).
- Alexander Dietz: Frankfurt trade history. 4 volumes. Frankfurt a. M. 1910-1924, Vol. 1, pp. 235, 263-267.
- Lilian Armstrong: Il Maestro di Pico: Un miniatore veneziano del tardo Quattrocento. In: Saggi e memorie di storia dell'arte 17 (1990), pp. 7–39, here p. 20, note 53 (No. 1) (also reprinted with additional appendices in: dies .: Studies on Renaissance Miniaturists in Venice, London 2003, Volume 1, pp. 233-338).
- From 1475 the following were still based: Alexander Dietz: Frankfurter Handelsgeschichte. Volume 1. Frankfurt am Main 1910, p. 265. Philippe Braunstein: Les Allemands à Venise (1380-1520). Rome 2016, pp. 608–609, 733 ff., 894–906.
- Gustav Ludwig: Contratti fra lo stampador Zuan de Colonia ed i suori socii e inventario di una parte del loro magazzino. In: Miscellanea di storia veneta ser. 2, 8 (1902), pp. 45-88; Angela Nuovo: The Book Trade in the Italian Renaissance. Leiden 2013 (Paperback 2016), pp. 28–31.
- Angela Nuovo: The Book Trade in the Italian Renaissance. Leiden 2013 (Paperback 2016), pp. 31–33, 41.
- Michael Rothmann: The Frankfurt Masses in the Middle Ages (= Frankfurt historical treatises 40), Diss. Frankfurt a. M. 1995, Stuttgart 1998, p. 422; a bookkeeper ad from Ugelheimer's circle edited by Bernd Breitenbruch: A fragment of a previously unknown bookseller ad. In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 62, 1987, pp. 138-145 ( Digisites ).
- Bernhard von Breydenbach: Peregrinatio in terram sanctam. Early New High German text and translation = A pilgrimage to the Holy Land , ed. von Isolde Mozer, Berlin / New York 2010, pp. 54–55, 64–65, 82–83.
- Reinhold Röhricht / Heinrich Meisner (ed. And comm.): German pilgrimages to the Holy Land. Berlin 1880, p. 127 ( digitized on Gallica ).
- Michael Rothmann: The Frankfurt trade fairs in the Middle Ages. Stuttgart 1998, p. 11.
- Emilio Motta: Pamfilo Castaldi, Antonio Planella, Pietro Ugleimer ed il vescovo d'Aleria. Nuovi documenti per la Storia della Tipografia in Italia tratti dagli Archivi Milanesi. In: Rivista Storica Italiana 1 (1884), pp. 252-272, esp. 260-263, Edition of the Testament pp. 269-271.
- Guido Beltramini / Davide Gasparotto / Giulio Manieri Elia (exhibition): Aldo Manuzio. Il rinascimento di Venezia (exhibition cat. Venice, Accademia 2016). Venice 2016, cat.no.85 (Chiara Ponchia). For printing: ISTC ic00281000 ; GW 6222 ; To the digitized copy ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. the Biblioteca Casanatense in Rome.
- Giordana Mariani Canova: La miniatura veneta del rinascimento. 1450–1500 (= Profili e saggi di arte veneta 7). Venice 1969, pp. 56-64; Jonathan James G. Alexander (Ed.): The Painted Page. Italian Renaissance book illumination 1450–1550 (exhibition cat. London, Royal Academy of Arts 1994–1995; New York, Pierpont Morgan Library 1995). Munich 1994, pp. 43-44 and Cat. No. 96-101 (Lilian Armstrong); Jonathan James G. Alexander: The Painted Book in Renaissance Italy. 1450-1600. New Haven 2016, pp. 183-188.
- Anthony RA Hobson: Humanists and Bookbinders. The Origins and Diffusion of the Humanistic Bookbinding 1459–1559, with a census of historiated plaquette and medallion bindings of the Renaissance. Cambridge 1989, pp. 38-41, 50-54, 91.
- Theodor Gottlieb: Venetian bindings of the XV. Century after Persian patterns. In: Kunst und Kunsthandwerk 16 (1913) 3, pp. 153–176, here 165–167.
- Josef Benzing , arr. v. Alois Gerlich : Directory of professors at the Old University of Mainz. Mainz 1986, p. 53.
- Christian August Vulpius: Hans Raininger from Buchhorn, and his journey: according to simultaneous news. In: Curiosities of the physical-literary-artistic-historical past and present. For pleasant entertainment for educated readers 6 (1818), pp. 323–334, here 332–333 ( digitized version ).
- H. Yates Thompson: The most magnificient book in the world? In: Burlington Magazine 9 (1906) 37, pp. 16-17 ( JSTOR 856681 ).
- Anthony RA Hobson: Great Libraries of the Old and New World. Munich 1970, p. 294.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ugelnheimer, Peter|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Venetian-German merchant, bookseller, publisher and bibliophile|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1445|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Frankfurt am Main|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 10, 1488|
|Place of death||Milan|