Knight Academy (Liegnitz)
The Liegnitz Knight Academy was a school built in the 18th century for the Silesian nobility. From 1811 it was also allowed to be visited by commoners. 1901–1945 the buildings of the knight academy served the Liegnitz state high school .
The Liegnitz Duke Georg Rudolf from the line of the Silesian Piasts , who died childless in 1653, decreed in his will of 1646 that considerable funds from his legacy would be used for the establishment of a school for noble Protestant boys from Silesia . Since it was under the administration of the Liegnitzer Johanniskirche (also court church ), it was also known as the Johannis Foundation. After the death of his great-nephew Georg Wilhelm I of Liegnitz-Brieg-Wohlau († 1675), with whom the Silesian Piasts became extinct in the male line, the duchies of Liegnitz , Brieg and Wohlau fell as settled fiefdoms by reversion to the Crown of Bohemia , which had been in force since 1526 the Habsburgs held. As kings of Bohemia, they carried out the re-catholicization and withdrew the funds from the Johannis Foundation. The St. John's Church, which belongs to the Reformed Church , was given to the Jesuits . Only after the Altranstädter Convention of 1708 was the Knight Academy created with the funds now released by the Johannis Foundation. It was a noble school that served equally noble boys of both denominations. When most of Silesia fell to Prussia after the First Silesian War , the Knight's Academy was opened to the bourgeoisie in 1811. In 1901 it was turned into a state high school, which existed until 1945. At the beginning of the 20th century, the pupils still wore a blue uniform with a yellow collar and yellow lapels, with a blue and yellow peaked cap, but no weapons.
The monumental palace of the Knight Academy was built in the years 1726–1738 in Baroque style according to plans by the architect Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach . While it survived the Second World War unscathed, it served as the headquarters of the Soviet troops stationed in Silesia from 1945 to 1992 after the transition to Poland . The palace has been restored for years and is now one of the Liegnitz sights again.
The valuable Bibliotheca Rudolphina belonging to the Johannis Foundation was transported to Russia in 1945. The library's music collection was later returned to Poland and is now in Wroclaw , Liegnitz, Lublin and Warsaw .
Teachers and managers
- August Bohse (1661–1742), Dr. iur., from 1708 professor
- Count Karl Friedrich von Posadowsky , director from January 1742
- Carl August von Struensee (1735–1804), Prussian finance minister, 1757–1771 professor
- Karl Abraham Freiherr von Zedlitz (1731–1793), Prussian Minister of Justice and Education (from 1770), director 1788–1789
- Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse (1790–1866), Dr. phil, historian, teacher around 1815
- Carl Friedrich Mosch (1784–1859), mineralogist, draftsman and writer, 1818–1835 teacher
- Theodor Blätterbauer (1823–1906), German painter, graphic artist and drawing teacher from 1854, in 1898 appointed professor
- Oskar Gerhard (1826–1895), senior teacher and professor 1869–1883
- Friedrich Kirchner (1840–?), Director from 1903
- Karl August Graf von Kospoth , landowner, curator 1897–1907
- Hans Ernst Graf von Carmer-Zieserwitz (1861–1922), major, landlord on Zieserwitz, MdHdA, MdR, around 1910 curator of the Knight's Academy and the St. Johannis Foundation
- Antonius Dietrich von Auer (1860–1923), major, about 1910 governor
- 1723–1726: Joachim Andreas von Maltzan (1707–1786), Prussian envoy and cabinet minister
- around 1740: Gustav Ludwig von der Marwitz (1730–1797), Prussian general
- around 1810: Bernhard Karl Heinrich von Prittwitz (1796–1881), Prussian major general and commander of the Thorn fortress
- around 1815–1820 Heinrich Wilhelm Dove (1803–1879), founder of scientific meteorology
- around 1820s: Julius Emil August Müller (1808–1885), theologian and politician, member of the Prussian House of Representatives
- until 1831: Hermann Wasserschleben (1812–1893), legal historian and member of the first chamber of the estates of the Grand Duchy of Hesse
- before 1835: Sebastian Seiler (1815–1870) German-American journalist and socialist.
- around 1840: Ludwig zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (1831–1912), registrar
- around 1855: Octavio von Zedlitz-Neukirch (1840–1919), politician, member of the Reichstag and member of the Prussian House of Representatives
- around 1860: Christian Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen (1848–1926), German landlord, politician and mining industrialist
- around 1862: Gustav von Kessel (1846–1918), Prussian Colonel General, Commander-in-Chief in the Mark Brandenburg and Governor of Berlin
- before 1870: Heinrich zu Schoenaich-Carolath (1852–1920), freelance civil servant and member of the Reichstag
- until 1882: Friedrich Ernst von Schwerin (1863–1936), Prussian district president
- until 1921: Harald Poelchau (1903–1972), prison pastor and resistance fighter against National Socialism
- around 1930: Rudolf Schnackenburg (1914–2002), German theologian
- 1936 to 1938: Hans Bernhard Graf von Schweinitz (1926–2008), German ministerial official, politician and writer
Sources and literature
- Annual report on the Royal Knight Academy in Liegnitz . Liegnitz 1841-1846; 1851–1854 ( digitized version ) (years 1841–1846; 1851; 1853–1854)
- Report on the Royal Knight Academy in Liegnitz . Liegnitz 1847–1850 ( digitized version ) (born 1847–1849)
- Invitation to the public speaking and dismissal act in the Royal Knight Academy in Liegnitz . Liegnitz 1855–1867 ( digitized version ) (born 1855–1865; 1867)
- Invitation to celebrate the birthday of Sr. Majesty the King in the Royal Knight Academy in Liegnitz . Liegnitz 1866 ( digitized version )
- The ... taking place public speech and dismissal act invites you respectfully and devotedly . Liegnitz 1868–1869 ( digitized version )
- Easter program . 1870–1903 ( digitized version ) (years 1870–1875; 1884–1903)
- Robert Weiss: Directory of the vertebrates and molluscs present in the natural history collections of the Ritter Academy, resp. Conchylia. Graphic representation of the frequency of the Ritter Academy since its reorganization . In: Easter program. Liegnitz 1870, pp. 3–15 ( digitized version )
- Karl Dressel: A Religious Curriculum for the Knight Academy. In addition to a lectionarium for morning devotions . In: Easter program. Liegnitz 1873, pp. 1–24 ( urn: nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-302168 digitized )
- Karl Dressel: Directory of the student library of the Royal Knight Academy in Liegnitz; sorted by grade level and subject and provided with a foreword . Liegnitz 1894 ( digitized version ) (supplement to the Easter program 1894)
- Friedrich Kirchner: Review of five years of activity in the seminar for candidates for higher teaching professions set up at the Knight Academy in Liegnitz . Liegnitz 1895 ( digitized version ) (supplement to the Easter program 1895)
- August Anschütz: Running the gymnastics classes at the Königl. Knight's Academy in Liegnitz and a methodical exercise plan for apparatus gymnastics in the lower and middle classes . Liegnitz 1896 ( digitized version ) (supplement to the Easter program 1896)
- Easter program . Liegnitz 1904–1909 ( digitized version )
- Hans Mau: Catalog of the Bibliotheca Rudolfina, which is united with the teachers' library of the Royal High School Johanneum . Heinze, Liegnitz 1905–1914, published in 6 vol. ( Digitized version )
- Ernst Pfudel: Directory of the directors, teachers, civil servants and high school graduates of the Royal Knight Academy in Liegnitz from 1811 - 1908 . Heonze, Liegnitz 1909 ( digitized version ) (supplement to the 1909 annual report)
- Easter program . Liegnitz 1910–1915 ( digitized version ) (years 1910–1915; supplements to 1913 and 1914)
- Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 .
- Alexander Hartmann: The new building of the Liegnitz Knight Academy (1728–1738) . In: Contributions to the Art History of East Central Europe , ed. by Hanna Nogossek and Dietmar Popp Issue 13, Volume VIII, Marburg 2001, ISBN 3-87969-296-3
- Peter Mainka: The education of the noble youth in Brandenburg-Prussia ; Curricular instructions by Karl Abrahams von Zedlitz and Leipe for the Knight Academy in Liegnitz; an archival study on the educational history of the Enlightenment period. In: Scientific writings of the Association for the History of Silesia, Volume 3, Würzburg 1997, ISBN 3-931889-01-7
- Theo Dames: On the building history of the Liegnitz Knight Academy; The master builder Martin Frantz , 1973, ISBN 3878880235
- Akademia Rycerska - Imperial Knight Academy na portalu polska-org.pl
- Further knight academies
- ↑ Franz v. Hammerstein: Poelchau, Harald. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-428-00201-6 , p. 561 f. ( Digitized version ).
Coordinates: 51 ° 12 ′ 29.6 ″ N , 16 ° 9 ′ 31.6 ″ E