Lausanne light rail
Tramway du sud-ouest lausannois
|Renens SBB terminal|
|opening||June 2, 1991|
|Route length||7.79 km|
|Gauge||1435 mm ( standard gauge )|
|Power system||750 volt DC overhead line|
|Clock in the peak hours||5 min|
|vehicles||17 note 4/6|
|Passengers||13.2 million per year (2013)|
The Lausanne light rail is a 7.8 kilometer long light rail route in the Swiss city of Lausanne . It connects the center (Flon) with the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (ÉPFL), the University of Lausanne (UNIL) and the Renens train station in the western municipality of Renens . The route was opened on May 24, 1991 by TSOL, société du tramway du sud-ouest lausannois SA . The management was entrusted to the Transports publics de la région lausannoise (TL). Since 2000 it has been referred to as the M1 line of the Métro Lausanne . In 2012 TSOL and LO (m2) merged with TL. The tracks are standard gauge (1435 mm), on the other hand all other Swiss tram companies are meter gauge.
The creation of the light rail line is closely linked to the relocation of the universities to the neighboring municipalities of Écublens and Dorigny. These locations were poorly served by public transport, so that employees and students increasingly traveled by car. In view of this situation, it was decided in 1980 to investigate the possibility of a rail link for the universities. The Institute for Transport and Urban Planning (ITEP) at the École Polytechnique was commissioned to carry out a feasibility study for such a project. In 1981 the following two possibilities emerged: Variant 1, called Littorail , was to run from Ouchy to Dorigny along Lake Geneva and then to either Renens or Morges train station . The second variant, called Flonrail , provided a connection from Dorigny to Flon train station. An extension to Morges or Renens station was also planned for this variant.
Finally, in 1985, the Flonrail variant was selected, the route of which has been protected since 1984. In 1986 a 50-year bond was issued by the Swiss Confederation and construction began in the spring of 1988. On September 27, 1988, Tramway du Sud-Ouest Lausannois SA was founded with a capital of CHF 53.5 million . At that time, a branch line in the direction of the Morges train station with a length of 6.8 kilometers and 9 stops was planned. However, this was never realized. After a few delays in the construction process, the tram finally went into operation on June 2, 1991.
Until the scheduled passenger service began on June 2, 1991, the route was used for test drives, simulations and training drives. This began towards the end of 1990. On May 24, 1991, the line was ceremoniously put into operation in the presence of Federal Councilor Adolf Ogi . More than 100,000 people attended the opening ceremonies, which lasted through May 26, 1991.
From the start, the line was operated every 10 minutes during the day on weekdays and every 15 minutes in the evening. A 12-minute cycle was offered on Saturdays and a 20-minute cycle on Sundays. 7.4 million passengers used the new route in the first year of operation. Because of this strong popularity, it was expected that the capacity limit would soon be reached. So the idea came up to let the light rail trains run over the SBB route from Renens back to Lausanne. However, the TL light rail vehicles are incompatible with the SBB's electricity system. For this reason, two-system railcars operated by the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn in 1992 for test purposes on the Stadtbahn route and the railway route. However, this solution was ultimately not pursued any further.
Three years later, in 1995, the fleet was expanded to include five new railcars. So the cycle could be compressed to 7.5 minutes.
Due to the further increase in the number of passengers, the frequency was reduced in 1997 to 10 minutes during the day and 5 minutes during rush hour . Several maintenance work was carried out in the same year. The curve radius, especially of the switches near the stops, has been increased in order to be able to increase the maximum speed in the switch areas and to improve driving comfort. The original copper overhead line was replaced by a contact wire made of a copper-silver alloy with a cross-section of 120 mm 2 and a support cable made of copper with a cross-section of 150 mm 2 .
In 1999 the first general inspection of the railcars was carried out in the Villeneuve workshop .
In 2008, the number of passengers on the M1 light rail line reached 10.0 million. In 2012 the line carried 12.5 million passengers, in 2013 it was 13.2 million.
|M1 Lausanne - Renens|
The route begins at Flon train station in downtown Lausanne. It runs completely underground to the Vigie stop . It is the longest tunnel on the route with a length of 404.7 meters. The tunnel has a gradient of 6 ‰. The first 69 meters are double-track until the two tracks join. The following 234 meters are single-track up to a 70-meter-long junction, which reestablishes double-track. In this section the gradient is 60 ‰. The remaining 31.7 meters that reach the Vigie stop are double-track.
The first level section begins after the Vigie stop . Then the route leads over a 194 meter long bridge with an average gradient of 47.6 ‰. This bridge runs next to the ERACOM and EPSIC schools and a little away from the Sévelin high school. The further course leads over a 227 meter long viaduct with a slope between 5 and 60 ‰. At the end of the viaduct is the Montelly stop with the first substation . The route then crosses the avenue de Provence with a barrier level crossing in front of the stop of the same name. Provence is the first of a total of three single-track stops. Then the route crosses the Chemin de Malley with two neighboring level crossings before a short ramp with a 60 ‰ gradient. After crossing the level crossing over the Chemin de la Prairie , it reaches the Malley stop . From then on, it runs in a 350-meter-long tunnel, which is followed by a 135-meter-long incision that ends at a level crossing. The route then runs along Avenue du Chablais , where it crosses Rue du Lac and Rue de Chavannes in two level crossings. Then it reaches the Bourdonette stop , where the second substation is located.
The route then crosses Europastrasse 23 on a 195.2 meter long bridge, crosses Route de la Chamberonne at a level crossing and reaches the UNIL-Dorigny stop . Here it leaves the urban area of Lausanne and reaches the area of the municipality of Chavannes-près-Renens . In the further course of the route, it crosses the Route de la Sorge with a long level crossing and reaches the UNIL-Mouline stop . Here the lowest point of the route is reached at 384.8 meters above sea level. There is a pedestrian level crossing immediately behind the stop. The route then crosses the Mèbre River and runs along the Route de la Sorge , crosses the Route de Praz Véguey and crosses the Sorge River before reaching the UNIL-Sorge stop , the second single-track stop on the route. The area of the municipality of Écublens is reached here. The route now crosses a private road on a small level crossing that leads to the EPFL heating center. From there, the line runs on two tracks to the EPFL stop next to the light rail depot . This includes a siding for work cars , five outdoor siding for the railcars and four hall tracks, three for the maintenance of the wagons and one for cleaning. The third and last substation on the line is also located here.
Behind the EPFL stop , the line runs on two tracks in a sharp curve with a radius of curvature of 80 meters. Then it reaches Bassenges , the third and last single-track stop on the line. From here the route runs along the avenue du Tir-Fédéral almost to its end . After 350 meters you will reach the next stop, Cerisaie . This is the shortest distance between two stops on the whole route. The Cerisaie stop is surrounded by two level crossings.
The route then crosses the Chemin de Champ-Fleuri and the Chemin de Cèdres before reaching the Crochy stop . On a 108.4 meter long bridge, it crosses Europastrasse 23 a second time. It now crosses the Avenue du Tir-Fédéral twice and runs along the Route du Pont-Bleu to the Épenex stop .
The route now runs on a ramp with a 60 ‰ gradient before it reaches its final destination, Renens station, via the last engineering structure on the route . This engineering structure is a 90 meter long viaduct with a curve radius of 80 meters and a gradient of 50 ‰. At Renens station, the line is connected to the SBB rail network .
All stops along the route are designed in the same way. With the exception of the three stops Provence , UNIL-Sorge and Bassenges, they are all double-tracked to allow crossings on the otherwise single-track route. The platform height is 95 centimeters, which means that there is level access to the high-floor vehicles of the Bem 4/6 type. The platforms are 65 meters long, which is sufficient for double traction of the Bem 4/6. With the exception of the Vigie and Malley underground stations and the Lausanne-Flon and Renens stations , all the stops have simple shelters and no platform roofs as rain protection. There are ticket machines at all stops that are of the same design throughout the TL network.
The frequency of use is between 5 and 15 minutes depending on the traffic time and is limited by the single track of the route. The trains can only meet at the double-track stops. The further imperative point of this infrastructure is the need for absolute punctuality, because a delay of one minute is transferred to the opposite direction and then propagates.
Railcar Bem 4/6
Operation on the M1 line is carried out with two-system railcars (electric and diesel-electric) of the Bem 4/6 type. These cars, which were manufactured by DUEWAG , Ateliers de constructions mécaniques de Vevey ACMV and ABB , are a variant of the type B light rail car . They have a capacity of 96 seats and standing room for 246. Since this is not sufficient in the rush hour, it is then driven in double traction.
When the line opened in 1991, twelve cars with the numbers 201 to 212 were delivered. In 1995, five more cars with the numbers 213 to 217 were delivered to increase the frequency during rush hour.
In the course of the delivery of the new Be 4/6, the Bem 4/6 underwent a major major overhaul, and adjustments were made so that they are compatible with the new multiple units. The auxiliary diesel generator was also expanded. The designation therefore changed to Be 4/6.
Railcar Be 4/6
From December 2013 to January 2015, five more two-part railcars 218 to 222 were put into operation in order to be able to drive double units every five minutes during rush hour. The individual parts of the car bodies were built by Kesmon Meccanica in Barbengo and assembled by Bombardier Transportation in Villeneuve VD , the bogies come from decommissioned type B light rail vehicles of the Cologne transport company , the vehicles were taken from employees of the Montreux-Berner Oberland-Bahn in the TL depot in Lausanne fully assembled. Since the depot was expanded and electrified, there was no need for a diesel-electric drive.
The new multiple units can only run with each other or with already revised multiple units in double traction.
- Shunting locomotive Tm 2/2 001
- Freight wagon X 008
- Hopper cars Fcs007
- Slewing rail crane X 003
- Michel Dehanne, Michel Grandguillaume, Gérald Hadorn, Sébastien Jarne, Jean-Louis Rochaix, Annette Rochaix: Voies normales privées du Pays de Vaud . BVA, Lausanne 1997, ISBN 2-88125-010-6 .
- Michel Dehanne, Michel Grandguillaume, Gérald Hadorn, Sébastien Jarne, Anette Rochaix, Jean-Louis Rochaix: Chemins de fer privés vaudois 1873 - 2000 . La Raillère (formerly BVA), Belmont 2000, ISBN 2-88125-011-4 .
- Jean-Louis Rochaix, Sébastien Jarne, Gérald Hadorn, Michel Grandguillaume, Michel Dehanne, Anette Rochaix: Chemins de fer privés vaudois 2000 - 2009 . 10 ans de modernization. La Raillère, Belmont 2009, ISBN 978-2-88125-012-5 .
- ↑ a b TL Rapport d'activité 2013 p. 16
- ^ TU directory of the Federal Office of Transport. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 7, 2018 ; accessed on May 6, 2018 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ zefix.admin.ch Central company index of the Federal Office for the commercial register. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
- ↑ Press release: Transfer de la première nouvelle rame m1 on tl.ch, accessed on October 31, 2013
- ↑ a b Florian Inäbnit: All replica multiple units in use . In: buffer stop . No. 2 . Buffer stop Druck & Verlag, 2015, ISSN 1660-2986 , p. 18-20 .
- ^ Mathias Rellstab: Five new trains for the Lausanne M1 . In: Swiss Railway Review . No. 1 . Minirex, 2013, ISSN 1022-7113 , p. 13 .