Stephen Myron Schwebel

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Stephen Myron Schwebel (born March  10, 1929 in New York City ) is an American lawyer . He was a judge at the International Court of Justice from 1981 to 2000 and President of the General Court from 1997 to 2000. From 1994 to 2009 he served as President of the Administrative Court of the International Monetary Fund . He also acts as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and as an independent mediator in international disputes.


Stephen M. Schwebel

Stephen Schwebel was 1929 in New York City born and acquired in 1950 a BA degree at Harvard University . After further studies at Cambridge University , he completed his training in 1954 with a Master of Laws from Yale University . He then worked for five years as a lawyer at White & Case in New York before becoming an assistant professor at Harvard University in 1959. Two years later, he joined the US State Department as Assistant Legal Adviser for United Nations Affairs .

In 1967 he became Edward Burling Professor of International Law at Johns Hopkins University . From 1973 he was also an advisor to the US State Department in the area of ​​international law, and a year later he became Deputy Legal Adviser of the Department. From 1977 to 1980 he was a member of the United Nations International Law Commission. He held both his professorship and his position in the US State Department until 1981. In the same year he succeeded his compatriot Richard Reeve Baxter as a judge at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague . He was confirmed twice in this office and remained in court until February 2000 (see UN Security Council resolution 1278 ). From 1994 he was Vice-President and from 1997 until the end of his term he was President of the Court of Justice in a phase that was one of the busiest in the history of the ICJ.

Stephen Schwebel has served as an independent mediator and legal advisor in Washington since retiring from the International Court of Justice . He specializes in disputes between states and foreign investors and has worked in over 40 commercial law mediation cases. He is also a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration . From 1994 to 2009 he was President of the Administrative Court of the International Monetary Fund , and since 2007 he has been a member of the Administrative Court of the World Bank . In 2005, the American legal magazine "The American Lawyer" ranked him second among the ten most renowned intermediaries worldwide.


Stephen Schwebel received the Johns Hopkins University Presidential Medal in 1992 , the Yale University Law Faculty Medal of Merit in 1997, and the Columbia University Law Faculty Wolfgang Friedmann Memorial Award in 1998 . The American Society for International Law , of which he was Honorary President from 1996 to 2001, awarded him the Manley O. Hudson Medal for Services in the Field of International Law in 2000 . He is also an honorary doctor of Bhopal University in India (1983), Hofstra University in New York (1997) and Miami University (2002). He has been made an Honorary Fellow by Trinity College and the Lauterpacht Center for International Law at Cambridge University .

Works (selection)

  • International Arbitration: Three Salient Problems. Grotius Publications, Cambridge 1987
  • Justice in International Law. Selected Writings of Judge Stephen M. Schwebel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1994, 2004 and 2008


  • Stephen M. Schwebel. In: Arthur Eyffinger, Arthur Witteveen, Mohammed Bedjaoui : La Cour internationale de Justice 1946–1996. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague and London 1999, ISBN 9-04-110468-2 , p. 323