Ludwig mine

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ludwig mine
General information about the mine
Funding / year Coal max. 371,971 t
Information about the mining company
Employees up to 1234
Start of operation 1860
End of operation 1966
Funded raw materials
Degradation of Bituminous coal / coal iron stone
Degradation of Coal iron stone
Geographical location
Coordinates 51 ° 25 '57.9 "  N , 7 ° 2' 5.4"  E Coordinates: 51 ° 25 '57.9 "  N , 7 ° 2' 5.4"  E
Zeche Ludwig (Regional Association Ruhr)
Ludwig mine
Location Ludwig colliery
Location Bergerhausen
local community eat
Independent city ( NUTS3 ) eat
country State of North Rhine-Westphalia
Country Germany
District Ruhr area

The Ludwig Zeche was a coal mine in Essen - Bergerhausen . Up until the beginning of the 20th century, coal and iron stone were mined at the mine in addition to hard coal , later only hard coal was mined. The Ludwig colliery was one of the founding members of the Rheinisch-Westphalian coal syndicate . The mine has a history of almost 120 years and was in operation for over 80 years.

Pit field and geology

The entire right consisted of a number of individual hard coal fields. Almost all the individual fields were in the area of ​​the former Rellinghausen monastery . The exception to this were two small length fields in Werden Abbey . In addition to the coal fields, the mine field also included an Eisenstein district field. This Eisensteinfeld was spread over the area of ​​the former Essen Abbey . The entire mine field had a size of 3.69 square kilometers. The Ludwig field was on the north wing of the Bochum Mulde. The carbon in this area was not covered by younger mountains , but was up to the surface. The seams in this area were deposited on the Langenbrahmer saddle. They were regular and without any significant disturbances. In the area of ​​the north wing, the construction limit of some seams went beyond the western marrow to the Langenbrahm field. The seams belonged to the group of lean coal seams of the horizon of the Girondelle and Sarnsbank seams. On strike , these seams formed the eastern continuation of the Langenbrahmer seams. The iron ore of the Eisensteinfeld connected to the Ludwig field was the coal iron stone connected to the Girodeller seam group . The thickness of the coal-iron stone seams varied between 0.55 and 0.65 meters.


The first years

In 1830, coal iron stone was found in the Ludwig field . On April 3, 1831 , the mines Henriettenglück , Finefrau, Adelgunde and Bänksgen consolidated. On May 17, 1853, the coal field Ludwig was awarded . In 1857 the mine was opened as the Eisensteinzeche with the name Zeche Neu-Essen II. The iron stone was extracted in tunnels . The ore had an iron content of 30 percent, and roasting increased the iron content to 43 to 44 percent. The coal iron stone appeared in alternation with the coal seams, for this reason one was forced to mine both the iron ore and the coal. However, the coal mined was not suitable for smelting purposes. In 1858 work began to sink a shaft . The shaft was initially only planned for the extraction of iron stone. In the same year, with the Eduard shaft, civil engineering was switched to hard coal . However, the dismantling was only provisional. In addition, the Längenfeld Free Hope was acquired for the mining of hard coal. In order to open up the mine field, an hereditary tunnel was created. However, until the beginning of the 1860s there was only insignificant coal mining. In 1861, the sinking of shaft 1 began. During the year the mine was closed in time limits . In 1864 the Kuxe of the Ludwig union were bought up by the GHH. In the same year, the Neu-Essen II colliery was taken over by the Ludwig colliery. In 1869 the ore mining was stopped for a short time.

Expansion of the mine

In 1872, the sinking work began for a shaft that took several tons. The shaft was required as a weather shaft, the bottom of the tunnel was at a depth of 43 meters (+ 74 m above sea ​​level ) and the bottom of the tunnel at a depth of 115 meters (+ 2 m above sea level). In 1874 the union Vereinigte Kapellenbank rented the mining of the Kapellenbänkchen seam from the Ludwig colliery. After the year 1875, the west was mark outgoing colliery Capell Bank adopted. At the end of December of the same year, the dismantling of the chapel bench ceased. The reason for this was the low sales prices, which meant that the cost of mining the coal exceeded the sales proceeds. In 1880 the first level was dismantled, this level was at a depth of 168 meters (- 51 m above sea level). In 1883, the digging of shaft 1 began. In the following year, the second level was set at a depth of 264 meters (- 147 m above sea level). In 1887, the Antoinette mine field, which separates the west of the mine, was acquired. The entire right now comprised three length fields. In 1890, shaft 1 was sunk deeper. In 1891, a breakthrough was made between the 2nd floor and the tunnel floor, which was used for better ventilation. In the same year, the third level was set in shaft 1 at a depth of 347 meters (- 230 m above sea level). In 1892 the mining of Eisenstein was resumed. In the construction field Am Brandenberge a day hacking was created. The Vorstbank field also belonged to the field. At that time, the rights holders covered an area of ​​2.6 km 2 . In the following year, a weather shaft was sunk to the bottom, there were now three shafts. In 1895, the sinking work in shaft 1 was resumed and in the following year the fourth level was set at a depth of 455 meters (- 338 m above sea level). In 1897 a contract was signed with the United Hermann mine , which allowed the Ludwig mine to dismantle in the United Hermann Geviertfeld. Another contract was signed with the Langenbrahm colliery, which assured the Ludwig colliery of the dismantling in the Längenfeld Geitling of Wittenberge . In 1898 the construction field now included the fields, Ernst, Louisenburg, Am Brandenberge, Vorstbank, Antoinette, Vereinigte Hermann, Vereinigte Capellenbank & Clarenbeck, Ludwigo and Ludwig.

Takeover by the GHH

Towards the end of the 19th century, the Ludwig trade union was taken over by Gutehoffnungshütte (GHH). In 1899 a contract was signed between the GHH and the owners of the Langenbrahm colliery. This contract regulates the mutual transfer of mining in the fields Vereinigte Hermann and Geitling am Wittenberge (Amsel). In 1900 the United Hall field was acquired. In 1902 the mining of iron stone was stopped for operational reasons. However, the GHH planned to resume mining at a later date. In 1904 there were now four shafts. From this point in time, the fields Louise and Geitling am Wittenberge also belonged to the authorized persons. The entire right now covered an area of ​​4 km 2 . In 1906 the 5th level was aligned . The bottom was at a depth of 567 meters (- 450 m above sea level) and was created by hacking. In 1908, two weather shafts were dropped , so two shafts were still available.

The day facilities

At Tagesanlagen one were after the takeover by the GHH compressor , two pit fan , a water amusement machine and two carriers for the shaft Ludwig I exist. A main carrier and a secondary carrier served as carriers. The major carrier was a drum winder , the wire basket of the machine had a diameter of 6.8 meters. The secondary hoisting machine was also a drum hoisting machine, its cable basket diameter was 2.15 meters. Both machines had a steam engine as their prime mover . The compressor was a twin compressor and could generate up to 5500 m 3 of compressed air per hour . The two pit ventilators were able to extract up to 8000 m 3 (5000 + 3000) of weather from the mine building . A Woolf balancing water maintenance machine was available in reserve for dewatering. The actual dewatering was built underground and consisted of an electrically operated turbo pump and a plunger pump driven by a composite steam engine . The turbo pump had a delivery rate of six cubic meters of pit water per minute, the plunger pump had a delivery rate of five cubic meters of pit water per minute. The coal extracted was processed in the coal washer. There was a chain conveyor from the shaft building to the laundry to transport the coal from the hanging bank. The power supply for the daytime systems and the water retention was provided by the Rheinisch-Westfälische Elektrizitätswerk in Essen.

The further operation by the GHH

In 1912, the sinking work for shaft 2 began. The shaft was beside pit one set . In the same year exploration work was carried out in the United Hall field. On July 8, 1912 , the Hagenberg II and Ludwig II fields consolidated into Ludwig II. In 1915, the shaft was in operation up to the 5th level. In the same year the weather shaft to the weather bed was given up. In 1919, the 6th level was set in shaft 2 at a depth of 696 meters (- 578 m above sea level). On October 1st, 1929, a briquette factory went into operation. In 1937, the rights covered an area of ​​3.8 km 2 . In 1939 the mining of iron stone started again. In 1944 a blind shaft was sunk up to the 7th level, this level was at a depth of 796 meters (-679 m above sea level).

The last few years until the shutdown

In 1945 the mining of iron coal was stopped again. In the same year, the military government of the victorious powers of World War II ordered the closure of the Ludwig mine. In 1946, funding was resumed for personal use. The 6th level served as the main delivery level. In 1947, funding was completely discontinued and resumed the following year. On March 31, 1949, the briquette factory was shut down. On April 1st of the same year Gutehoffnungshütte leased the Ludwig mine field with the Ludwig 1/2 shafts to the Langenbrahm union to the south .

Promotion and workforce

The first known production figures come from 1861, when 9120 Prussian tons of hard coal were extracted. The coal mined by the Ludwig colliery was anthracite , which was used for domestic fires and for use in brick and lime kilns. The first known workforce numbers come from the year 1867, when 14 miners produced 89,247 bushels of hard coal . In 1875 the mine already had 227 employees, and production was over 57,000 tons of hard coal. In 1880 the production sank to 40,997 tons of hard coal, the number of employees was 130 employees. In 1885 the number of employees was 156, the production amounted to 49,400 tons of hard coal. In 1890 a production of 163,000 tons was achieved, the number of employees was 465 employees. In 1892 a significant amount of coal iron stone was mined in addition to coal. With 468 employees, the mine produced 156,043 tons of hard coal and 3763 tons of ore that year. In 1895, 561 employees produced 182,598 tons of hard coal and 17,856 tons of ore.

In 1900, 220,000 tons of hard coal and over 12,000 tons of ore were mined; the workforce was 679. In 1905, 185,635 tons of hard coal were mined with 560 employees. In 1910, 190,051 tons of hard coal were mined, the workforce was 661 employees. In 1920 the workforce rose to 973, and the production amounted to over 212,000 tons of hard coal. In 1925, 241,323 tons of hard coal were mined, the workforce was 888 employees. In 1930, 985 employees produced over 301,000 tonnes of hard coal. In 1935 the production sank to 261,034 tons of hard coal, the workforce was 896 employees. In 1937, 1234 people were employed at the mine. This year the maximum production of the mine was achieved with 371,971 tons of hard coal. In 1940 the production was 337,288 tons of hard coal, the number of employees was 1027 employees. In 1944 there were still 1107 employees in the mine, the production was 265,247 tons of hard coal. In 1945 the production fell to 64,517 tons of hard coal, the workforce was 729 employees. In 1946 there was a drastic drop in production to 4804 tons of coal, the workforce was 203 employees. In 1948, 258 people were still employed at the mine; around 13,000 tons of hard coal were extracted. These are the last known sponsorship and workforce figures.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Joachim Huske : The coal mines in the Ruhr area. Data and facts from the beginning to 2005 (= publications from the German Mining Museum Bochum 144). 3rd revised and expanded edition. Self-published by the German Mining Museum, Bochum 2006, ISBN 3-937203-24-9 .
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Wilhelm Hermann, Gertrude Hermann: The old collieries on the Ruhr. 4th edition, Verlag Karl Robert Langewiesche, successor Hans Köster KG, Königstein i. Taunus, 1994, ISBN 3-7845-6992-7
  3. a b c d Gerhard Gebhardt: Ruhr mining. History, structure and interdependence of its societies and organizations. Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Essen 1957
  4. a b c d e Fr. Frölich: The Gutehoffnungshütte Oberhausen. Second book, The works of the Gutehoffnungshütte according to the status of 1910. In memory of the 100th anniversary 1810-1910
  5. a b c d Arnold Woltmann: The Gutehoffnungshütte Oberhausen. First book, history of the Gutehoffnungshütte. In memory of the 100th anniversary from 1810-1910
  6. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (ed.): Journal for the mountain, huts and saltworks in the Prussian state. Seventh volume, published by the royal and secret Ober-Hofdruckerei (R. Decker), Berlin 1859.