Andorra is a drama by the Swiss writer Max Frisch that marks the end of his period of “dedicated theater”. In the form of a parable , Frisch uses the example of anti-Semitism to address the effects of prejudices , the guilt of fellow travelers and the question of a person's identity in relation to the image that others have of them.
The drama is about Andri, a young man who was conceived by his father out of wedlock to a foreigner and is therefore passed off by him as a Jewish foster son. The inhabitants of Andorra are constantly prejudiced by Andri, so that even after he has learned his true origin, he clings to the Jewish identity that has been assigned to him. This is followed by his murder by a racist neighboring people. After letting it all happen, the Andorrans justify their wrongdoing and cowardice in front of the audience and deny their guilt.
Andorra was on November 2, 1961 at the Schauspielhaus in Zurich under the direction of Kurt Hirschfeld premiered and one of the most important plays after the Second World War celebrated. However, the drama also became the subject of controversy, which was sparked by the fact that Frisch chose anti-Semitism as a model, which defused its special problems and played down historical reality. Switzerland or Germany during the Nazi era were often understood as a model for Andorra, which Frisch described as a “ model ”, which does not mean the real small state of Andorra . While the drama failed on Broadway in America , it is still a work played on many stages in the German-speaking world and included in the school canon . Together with Biedermann and the arsonists , Andorra is Max Frisch's most famous play.
The inhabitants of Andorra fear the attack of the "blacks", a powerful neighboring people who persecute and murder Jews. The patriotic Andorrans also have a large number of anti-Semitic prejudices. Andri, the main character in the drama, which has been passed off as a Jewish foster child by the teacher Can since childhood, suffers from these prejudices. Only later does it come to light that Andri is the son of Cans from an extramarital relationship with a "black woman". In order to keep his fatherhood a secret, the teacher claimed that he had saved Andri from the "blacks" when he was a Jewish child.
The piece begins the day before Saint George's Day . Barblin, the teacher's daughter, whitewashed her father's house, like all girls that day. She is watched by the soldier and harassed with lewd jokes. The Father expresses the Andorrans' self-image that they are a peaceful, weak and pious country. But different omens already point to a coming catastrophe.
Andri himself was working as a kitchen boy in a pub at the time. He loves Barblin without knowing that she is actually his half-sister. Andri wants to marry her, but does not dare to ask the teacher for her hand. To seduce the daughter of his supposed foster father would seem ungrateful to him; the feeling of constantly having to be grateful to his “savior” depresses him. Andri is very reserved and is concerned about public opinion. In order not to attract the ubiquitous anti-Semitic prejudices of the Andorrans, he adapts to them as well as possible and tries to prove his loyalty .
The teacher is a carpentry apprenticeship for Andri, although the carpenter his prejudices always with the phrase "... if it's a non-blood has" expressed and requires an excessively high sum for teaching. Andri is proud of his apprentice's sample, a firmly mortised chair, but the carpenter assigns Andri the unsuccessful work of the journeyman, whose legs can easily be torn out. The journeyman does not clear up the mistake, and the carpenter is willing to devalue Andri's work because of his prejudices. He puts Andri in the sale, for which he as a Jew, as the carpenter thinks, is better suited. Andri realizes that his adaptation cannot overcome all prejudice barriers, and revolted for the first time.
After an examination by the doctor, whom the teacher throws out of the house for anti-Semitic statements, Andri asks the teacher for Barblin's hand. He is turned away and blames his identity as a Jew. The more Andri is confronted with the prejudices, the more intensely he observes himself and perceives attributes in himself that are said to him. So he, who has so far been generous with his money, only appropriates the “Jewish” greed for money when he plans to emigrate with Barblin.
Andri sleeps on Barblin's doorstep at night. Unnoticed by him, the soldier, who had previously "unsuccessfully cast an eye on Barblin", raped Barblin, who tried in vain to scream. Andri rejects his father several times that night, who tries to talk to him. When the teacher addresses Andri as his "son", Andri guards against being the teacher's son. Eventually the soldier steps out of Barblin's room, and Andri loses faith in her too. The priest tries to help Andri, but he too expresses prejudices and, with good intentions, encourages Andri to accept “himself” as a Jew.
Andri's mother, called "the Senora", comes to Andorra from the "blacks" to see her son. When she accuses the teacher of having passed Andri off as a Jew, the latter finally decides to reveal the truth. The father reveals Andri's true identity, but comes across Andri's refusal to accept the truth. He insists on his role as a Jew and scapegoat, which he has now come to terms with. On departure, Senora, who is hostile to the Andorrans as a "spy", falls victim to a stone's throw. Andri is wrongly accused of the assassination, the later fear of the host betrays him as the real stone thrower.
The “blacks” are marching into Andorra, and patriots who were previously convinced are surrendering their weapons and trying to curry favor with the new rulers. Meanwhile, Andri and his father have a final confrontation, and Andri rejects the truth one last time. He now identifies with the collective fate of the Jews and is ready to take on the role of martyr . Andri also turns away from Barblin, who is trying to save her brother. He rejects the role of brother and wants from Barblin what in his eyes she grants the soldier and everyone else and only refuses to him: to sleep with her. But he is picked up by the soldier who has meanwhile defected into the service of the "blacks".
On the square of Andorra there is a “Judenschau” under the direction of a “professional Judenschauers” of the “blacks”, who supposedly can recognize Jews by external characteristics. Despite Barblin's appeals to resist, the Andorrans did not defend themselves against the invaders. Andri is "recognized" as a Jew by his walk and is led away. Only when the doomed man's finger was chopped off to take the senora's ring from him did this act go too far, even for the Andorrans. At the end of the piece, the teacher hanged himself and Barblin went mad. It whitens the pavement of the large square and thus takes up what happened in the opening scene.
Between the images , individual Andorrans involved in the play come to the fore in short passages from the plot. In testimony at a barrier, they justify their actions and omissions and reject the guilt of Andri's death. Only the priest, who is the only one to testify in prayer instead of at the witness cabinet, confesses to having made a portrait of Andri and assumes complicity in his death.
Directory of persons
The list of people lists twelve speaking people, only two of whom are named: Andri and Barblin. They are the only characters who love each other and therefore do not create a portrait of one another (see the topic of the problematic of images). The others are designated with a title or profession; the actual name is mentioned at most in the conversation. These are types that are determined by family, work or social position. Max Frisch's intention to give Andorra the character of a model is already evident from the typical role names.
Many Andorrans also embody at least one of the prejudices with which one encounters Andri. That of cowardice, the only one that also applies to Andri, applies to all of them. In addition to the speaking roles, there are two mute individuals, the idiot and the Jewish spectator, as well as two mute collectives, the Andorran people and the soldiers of the “blacks”.
|Andri||Andri||is, although at the center of the plot, isolated from the other characters. According to Frisch, he is “not a model boy. Sometimes he should shock us like any other person. "|
|Barblin||Barblin||the only one who stands up for Andri until the end. Regarding the lack of clarity for many viewers about the relationship between Barblin and the soldier, Frisch said that this was "regrettable" but "a minor obscurity", and he interpreted the stage directions for the sixth picture - "Barblin wants to scream, but her mouth is closed" - from: "that marks him as a rapist".|
|The teacher||Can||Father of Andri and Barblin.|
|The mother||The teacher's wife and mother Barblins, tries to keep the family together.|
|The senora||Mother Andris, a "black". In retrospect, Frisch called her “a weak figure. [...] What is important is not the Senora but the Andri-Andorra problem. "|
|The priest||Benedict||does not make his confession at the witness cabinet and is the only one to admit his guilt; Acts with good intentions, but for Frisch it is still “one of the others. He represents the Church, it may be, but the Church does not represent us, not for me. ”Although he ascribes positive qualities to“ the Jews ”(and Andri with them), he, like the other Andorrans, places Andri on a certain of Prejudices determined role.|
|The soldier||Peider||“Has one eye” on Barblin and, due to the later rape, corresponds to the prejudice of lust|
|The host||alleged murderer of the senora; it corresponds to the prejudice of greed for money raised against Andri|
|The Carpenter||Prader||particularly anti-Semitic; also corresponds to the prejudice of greed|
|The journeyman||Fedri||reveals Andris friendship|
|The someone||appears as an ironic, distant observer who thinks further than the other Andorrans, but does not intervene in the action.|
|The doctor||Ferrer||especially anti-Semitic and patriotic, tried in vain to make a career abroad and hypocritically justifies his return to Andorra with his love for the “fatherland”. He accuses the ambition of the Jews to have snatched the passages from under his nose and is himself overly ambitious.|
|Mute single roles|
|The idiot||takes on the function of the fool , serves to emphasize certain statements|
|The Jewish shower||represents an "alienating element", he is not a type like the other characters, but the "symbol for the power of prejudice and its institutionalization."|
The piece Andorra is divided into twelve pictures, which in turn can be combined into two thematic complexes of six pictures each. While the first six pictures show Andri's growing exclusion from the Andorran community, the second six pictures address Andri's progressive identification with the image that the Andorrans have of him, "his increasing willingness to accept the old lot of 'the' Suffering Jews and being killed as a scapegoat. "
|First picture||Starting position, hint of what is to come ( someone : "There is a thunderstorm in the air")||1. Confession||The landlord at the witness locker|
|Second picture||Nocturnal conversation Andri – Barblin, self-doubt Andris||2. Confession||The carpenter at the witness cabinet|
|Third picture||Andri in the carpentry workshop, he is not allowed to become a carpenter (first hit for Andri)||3. Confession||The journeyman at the witness locker|
|Fourth picture||Conversation between Andri-Doctor, the teacher refuses to marry his children|
|Fifth picture||Teacher's conflict of conscience|
|Sixth picture||Andri rejects attempts by the teacher to explain, the soldier rapes Barblin||4. Confession||The soldier at the witness locker|
|Seventh picture||Father persuades Andri to “take care of himself”; he too shows subliminal prejudices||5. Confession||Father prays, first and only confession in which someone admits his guilt|
|Eighth picture||Enter the senora, soldiers beat Andri||Conversation between teacher and senora||The senora blames the teacher|
|Ninth picture||Farewell and death of the Senora, another conversation between Andri and Father, but Andri has meanwhile adopted the image of the others as his own “identity”||6. Confession||Someone at the witness locker, he felt sorry for Andri, but "you have to be able to forget too"|
|Tenth picture||Invasion of the “blacks”, conversation between Andri-teacher, Andri finally identified with the fate of the Jews||Patrol of the soldiers of the "blacks"|
|Eleventh picture||Andri wants to sleep with Barblin against her will “like the others”, long conversation Andri – Barblin, arrest Andris||7. Confession||The doctor at the witness locker|
|Twelfth picture||Judenschau, Andri is "fetched", Barblin goes mad, the teacher hangs himself|
Subjects of the piece
One of the main themes of the piece is the problem of portraits, which is at the center of all of Frisch's oeuvre: How can the individual preserve his own identity in relation to the image that his surroundings make of him? Frisch's first prose sketch on Andorra ended with a reference to the commandment : “You should not make yourself an image, it is said, of God. It should also apply in this sense: God as the living in every human being, that which cannot be grasped. It is a sin that, as it is committed against us, we commit again almost without ceasing - except when we love. "In his novel Stiller , Frisch continued:" Every portrait is a sin. It is exactly the opposite of love [...] If you love a person, you leave every possibility open to him and despite all your memories you are simply ready to be amazed, to be amazed again and again at how different he is, how different and not easy so, not a finished portrait ”.
By creating a picture of how Andri should be as a Jew, the Andorrans define him according to their prejudices. In order to come to terms with himself, in order to become one with the image that others have of him, Andri ultimately has no choice but to accept this image, to fulfill the role expected of him and to confirm the prejudices that are brought against him . The pressure of the social environment leads to constant self-examination and adjustment to expectations. In an interview with Curt Riess , Frisch made the following claim on the basis of his play: "Everyone is obliged to look at everyone else without prejudice."
Another theme of the piece is cowardice. The Andorrans are cowardly when they do nothing against the “blacks”, although they are “opposed to atrocities”. Even the free-thinking someone , the kind father and Andri's father are cowardly. Andri himself is a coward when he doesn't dare to hold Barblin's hand and when he has to emulate the others. His cowardice is also a result of the prejudice that the Andorrans hold against him. The soldier who claims to Andri that an Andorran is not cowardly, only Jews are cowardly, is one of the first defectors when the “blacks” march in.
Frisch attached great importance to the fact that the audience could not distance themselves from the Andorrans. It is essential that “the Andorrans did not kill their Jew, they only make him a Jew in a world where that is a death sentence.” The fact that someone else becomes an executioner does not exonerate them from their guilt: “I want them Show guilt where I see it, our guilt, because if I hand my friend over to the hangman, the hangman will not take over responsibility. ”In an interview with Curt Riess, he continued:“ The guilty people are sitting on the floor. They who say they didn't mean it. They who have become guilty but do not feel complicit. They should be frightened [...] after they have seen the play, they should lie awake at night. [...] The accomplices are everywhere. "
The testimony shows that humanity is incorrigible and that the Andorrans have learned nothing from all of this. Most of them admit that their approach to Andri as a non-Jew was wrong, but they reduce their guilt to ignorance of Andri's true identity and consider their approach to a real Jew to be justified. They take on the slightest guilt, that part that was not important to the course of history.
Frisch himself saw in his play “[t] he quintessence: the guilty are not aware of any guilt, are not punished, they have not done anything criminal. I don't want a ray of hope at the end, I want to end with this horror, I want to end with the scream about how scandalous people treat people. ”His pessimistic assessment also extended to the question of the effect of his play:“ That is an optimism, which I don't have. ”After racism was thematized in Andorra and the play was even read in schools, for him“ the racist reflexes ”in the guest worker question“ were counter-evidence that something was being taught that had an effect and has borne fruit ”.
History of origin
A first draft for Andorra was made in 1946. It can be found in Frisch's diary 1946–1949 under the title The Andorran Jew and follows a prose sketch on the commandment “You shouldn't make a portrait”. In contrast to the later theatrical adaptation, it indicates that the Jew himself was cruelly murdered by perpetrators from Andorra, and the Andorrans do not justify themselves on the witness stand: “But the Andorrans, whenever they looked in the mirror, saw with horror that they themselves Each of them has traits of Judas . ” Joachim Kaiser later judged the differences between the design and the play:“ The play tells the parable differently. The focus is not on the Jew, but - the newly formulated title already suggests - Andorra. "
In a workshop discussion with Horst Bienek in 1961, Frisch stated: “It was only after years, after reading the aforementioned sketch of the diary several times, that I discovered that this is a big subject - so big that it scared me, lusted and Fear at the same time - but above all, after I had got to know each other from my previous experiments, I saw that this material is my material. That is precisely why I hesitated for a long time, knowing that one does not find a substance every year. I wrote the piece five times before I gave it up. "
Frisch planned his play for the 20th anniversary of the Schauspielhaus Zürich in the 1958/1959 season, but preferred the two one-act plays Biedermann and the Arsonists and The Great Fury of Philipp Hotz for practice. Work began on Ibiza , hence, according to Frisch, “the white, bare backdrops.” A first version entitled Time for Andorra remained unfinished because of the simultaneous work on the novel My Name Be Gantenbein . In December 1960, Frisch submitted a version to Suhrkamp Verlag under the title Model Andorra . But up to the premiere at the Zürcher Schauspielhaus, which was given on three evenings on November 2nd, 3rd and 4th, 1961, Frisch worked intensively on the drama, further changes were made until the German premiere on January 20, 1962 (at the same time in Munich , Düsseldorf and Frankfurt).
On the final title Andorra , Frisch said in the comments on the play: “Of course, what is meant is not the real small state of this name , not the people in the Pyrenees that I do not know, nor any other real small state that I know [allusion to the Switzerland ]; Andorra is the name for a model. ”And he regretted Horst Bienek:“ Andorra is not a good title. I couldn't think of the better one. Pity! As far as the small state of Andorra is concerned, I console myself with the thought that it has no army to ambush the countries that play the play out of a misunderstanding. "
Bertolt Brecht exerted a strong influence on Andorra . Frisch himself noted "the simple awareness that I have learned from him." Andorra was "[ no ] an attempt to go beyond Brecht, but an attempt with the epic theater without adopting Brecht's ideological position." An alienation effect in the style of Brecht is "the appearance of the protagonists who do not have a song, but make statements - there is no doubt that I have taken over from Brecht."
Andorra , along with Biedermann and the Arsonists, is one of Frisch's best-known and most successful theater pieces. The premiere at the Zürcher Schauspielhaus was already spread over three evenings from November 2nd to 4th, 1961 because of the great public interest and was a great theatrical success. Siegfried Melchinger wrote about Andorra : “It is the most important [piece] in German for years. […] The overwhelming approval with which it was received at the Zürcher Schauspielhaus […] was aimed both at the truth it speaks and the man who had the courage to bring it on stage. ” Friedrich Luft was also enthusiastic : “The interest was enormous and so was the success. When was the last time you experienced such a frenzy of approval with a modern play written in German, and with a subject that is rather unpleasant and delicate? [...] With this triple premiere in Zurich, we finally have a very respectable, important, and extremely well-performing piece in our own language again. An example, a timeless piece of time ”. However, he already added: “Frisch was celebrated endlessly. Will he be understood as well as cheered? "
In Switzerland, Andorra was seen as a model for Switzerland, and the Swiss criticism reacted "with little enthusiasm". Frisch himself confessed: “ Andorra hit the Swiss audience [...] - and not unintentionally; an attack against the pharisee-like behavior towards German guilt: the tendency towards anti-Semitism in Switzerland. ”The German audience, however, welcomed the play,“ it showed that it was not only they who were capable of wrongdoing ”. But the German criticism also made reference to its own history and National Socialism . So wrote Rudolf Walter Leonhardt : "The historical model for Andorra is Germany." And Hellmuth Karasek recognized in the final scene of the Jews show "for the concentration camp reality of selections a grisly, horrible striking dramatic match." For Peter Pütz , this recording led to misunderstandings among the audience: “Some of them leaned back in their theater armchairs and saw a dark chapter of German history - at least in literary terms - over. Others were outraged; because they missed an appropriate representation and processing of the unspeakable horror in the play ”.
In fact, critical voices soon mingled with the initial enthusiasm. For Friedrich Torberg , Frisch had written Andorra “an eminently important piece, one of the most important that has been written in German since 1945. [...] it should be played on all German stages. It is that important. ”But its root is“ the fundamental misunderstanding [...] Jew, being a Jew, Judaism as concepts or facts of the past may be unclear [...]: they are not models, they are not interchangeable objects of any (and for their part . exchangeable) prejudices, just as anti-Semitism not any (and, in turn replaceable) prejudice is "yet further allegations against Andorra took Hans Bänziger true:" One should in some places even an anti-Semitic tendency have discovered. It's not a coincidence. Because the Jewish problem was reduced to its general fundamentals in the play, the Jewish problem is defused. " Hans Rudolf Hilty criticized:" If the persecuted person is only a hypothetical Jew, the persecution all too easily appears as a 'tragic error' [...] subsuming the problem of anti-Semitism the demand 'You shouldn't make a picture' has probably led to a trivialization of the historical facts ”. Hans Weigel even issued a “warning against Andorra ”. The piece was "secondly not good and firstly very dangerous." Frisch had "failed to realize the simile sought" and thus suggested the excuse, as in the play it was never in reality. It is "always embarrassing when a good cause is advertised with questionable means." But Austria had "survived German rule, Austria survived ten years of quadruple occupation, Austria will also deal with Andorra by Max Frisch."
The Israeli production of March 1962 in the city theater of Haifa was regarded in a meeting of the Jedioth Hajom as “a certain risk”, since the accusers were sitting in the auditorium and not the defendants. The viewer in Israel could not by “'double thinking' disregard the fact that not only the Jews but every minority was meant,“ the attempted proof of the play that the Jews are not 'different' at all, but are forced to be different , naturally cannot withstand in Israel. There is also positively Jewish. ”Nevertheless, Andorra is a“ disturbing drama. […] Despite small objections, it can also be warmly recommended to the Israeli audience. ”The performance on New York's Broadway, on the other hand, was canceled a week after the premiere on February 9, 1963 as a complete failure. In the New York Times , Howard Taubman criticized, among other things, the irony of Frisch, which was "bitter and unyielding". “His humor is seldom funny or lively, witty punchlines rarely appear. It hits the reader like a stick. ”He pointed out the differences between the American and Central European mentalities. "What seems to us to be a rather transparent irony is felt there as profound and subtle." Sabina Lietzmann judged over fifteen American reviews that she has received, saying that "only five have even understood what Andorra is about". The audience called “the piece clumsy, coarse, tactless […], embarrassing, cheap […]. One does not want to be hit by Andorra and claims, referring to the European success, that it may have a mass therapeutic effect 'over there', but here it is running open doors. That racial prejudice is an evil, and what it can lead to, has long been understood here in general, Max Frisch is not needed for that. "
The American failure and the criticism that also began in Europe had an impact. While Andorra was the second most successful play on German-speaking theaters in the 1962/63 season with 963 performances after Friedrich Dürrenmatt's Die Physiker , it was performed more and more sparsely in the following years and was primarily used as school reading. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the staging has increased again, and Andorra was perceived anew in its "timelessness", "the undiminished explosiveness of its subject matter" and its "oppressive topicality". By 1996, Volker Hage had around 230 productions on German-speaking stages. According to Jürgen H. Petersen, Andorra is "controversial to this day" and "[in] the German-speaking countries as a work of art both valued and rejected".
Max Frisch himself commented on the misunderstandings that had accompanied the recording of Andorra in a letter to Peter Pütz in 1975: “The piece itself is not innocent; it is too monotonous - out of a need that has caused me a lot of work: the fable does not carry itself enough (in contrast to the Biedermann piece, which thus remains more open) and therefore cannot do without penetrating 'meaning' ”. It was not until 1968 that Frisch returned to the theater with Biographie: Ein Spiel . He explicitly turned away from the parabolic form of the previous pieces, which compelled him to “deliver a message that I actually don't have”, but also no longer achieved their audience success. In an interview with Heinz Ludwig Arnold , Frisch admitted: “I'm glad I wrote [ Andorra ], I'm glad that it was performed a lot - I haven't seen too many performances. It's not that I would really like to see it now; it is too transparent for me [...]; but then [if it weren't transparent] it might no longer be effective [...] It is not mysterious enough for me for myself. "
- Andorra: piece in twelve pictures. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1961. 63. Reprint 2006: ISBN 3-518-36777-3 (Suhrkamp-Taschenbuch 277).
- Secondary literature
- Gerhard P. Knapp, Mona Knapp: Max Frisch: Andorra . 7th edition. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-425-06071-6 .
- Walter Schmitz , Ernst Wendt (Ed.): Frisch's Andorra . 1st edition. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-518-38553-4 .
- Comments for students
- Manfred Eisenbeis: Reading aids Max Frisch, “Andorra”. 10th edition. Klett, Stuttgart et al. 2004, ISBN 3-12-922329-0 (Klett-Lektürehilfen learning training).
- Bernd Matzkowski, Explanations on Max Frisch: Andorra , Textanalyse und Interpretation (Vol. 145), C. Bange Verlag , Hollfeld 2011, ISBN 978-3-8044-1901-8 .
- Sabine Wolf: Andorra by Max Frisch: reading key with table of contents, interpretation, examination questions with solutions, learning glossary. (Reclam reading key XL). Philipp Reclam jun., Ditzingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-15-015459-5 .
- Andorra Directed by Diagoras Chronopoulos, Dimitris Papakonstadis, Greece, 1976
- cf. Klaus Müller-Salget: Max Frisch . Reclam, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-15-015210-0 , pp. 64-65
- Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 57
- Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , pp. 45–46.
- Knapp, Knapp: Max Frisch: Andorra , p. 18
- Max Frisch: Collected works in chronological order . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1976, Volume II, p. 374
- Max Frisch: Collected works in chronological order . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1976, Volume III, p. 500
- See Jürgen H. Petersen: Max Frisch . Metzler, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-476-13173-4 , pp. 71-72
- Curt Riess : accomplices are everywhere . In: Die Zeit , No. 45/1961
- Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 53
- Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 64
- Max Frisch: Collected works in chronological order , Volume II, p. 369
- Joachim Kaiser : The Andorrans are unteachable . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 175
- Horst Bienek : Workshop discussions with writers . Hanser, Munich 1962, pp. 28-29
- Max Frisch: Notes on “Andorra” . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 41
- See Knapp, Knapp: Max Frisch: Andorra, p. 15
- Max Frisch: Answers to questions from Ernst Wendt . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , pp. 18-19
- Quoted from: Knapp, Knapp: Max Frisch: Andorra , p. 17
- Siegfried Melchinger : The Jew in Andorra . In: Schmitz, Wendt: Frischs Andorra , p. 165.
- Friedrich Luft : Look in your mirror and be disgusted! In: Die Welt , November 6, 1961
- Knapp, Knapp: Max Frisch: Andorra , p. 41
- Lioba Waleczek: Max Frisch . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-423-31045-6 , pp. 126–127
- Rudolf Walter Leonhardt : Where is Andorra? In: Die Zeit , No. 4/1962
- Hellmuth Karasek : Max Frisch . Friedrich's playwright of the world theater volume 17. Friedrich Verlag, Velber 1974, p. 90
- Peter Pütz : Max Frisch's "Andorra" - a model of misunderstandings . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 122
- Friedrich Torberg : A fruitful misunderstanding . In: Albrecht Schau (ed.): Max Frisch - Contributions to an impact history . Becksmann, Freiburg 1971, pp. 296-297
- Quoted from: Hellmuth Karasek : Max Frisch , p. 84
- Hans Rudolf Hilty : Taboo "Andorra"? In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 117
- Hans Weigel : Warning of "Andorra" . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , pp. 225–229
- "Andorra" by Max Frisch in the Haifer Stadttheater . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , pp. 253-257
- Howard Taubman: "Andorra": A European success fails on Broadway . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , pp. 241–242
- Sabina Lietzmann: Why Frisch's “Andorra” went under in New York . In: Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , pp. 244–246
- Knapp, Knapp: Max Frisch: Andorra , p. 42
- Volker Hage : Max Frisch . Rowohlt, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-499-50616-5 , p. 81
- Jürgen H. Petersen: Max Frisch , p. 70
- Schmitz, Wendt (Ed.): Frischs Andorra , p. 65